How to understand the defcon scale

My software and hardware projects

How to understand the defcon scale

Let’s start with an explanation of what is the DEFCON scale from https://en. Wikipedia. org / wiki / DEFCON:

The DEFCON system was developed by Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and unified and defined combat commands. [2] It prescribes five graduated levels of readiness(or states of alert) for the U. S. military. Severity is increased from DEFCON 5 (less severe) to DEFCON 1 (more severe) to accommodate different military situations.

and a photo of the final result to better understand how it looks

How to understand the defcon scale

Hardware

The scale is made of wood with 9 LEDs behind each level / number

How to understand the defcon scale

The balancing logic comes from arduino Micro with BLE sparkfun BLE module “SparkFun Blueeitooth Mate Silver – https: // www. Sparkling fun. Com / products / 12576” (not used yet). The Arduino is powered at 9V regulated by the 12V main power supply (used for the LEDs). The backlight of each number is controlled by a MOSFET (P30N06LE) controlled by Arduino. There are also 2 test buttons to increase / decrease the level.

How to understand the defcon scale

Software

Arduino

The Arduino micro communicates with the computer via USB to detect the level that should be on the scale. It will do this by purchasing 5 MOSFETs to illuminate the appropriate panel. Also hear 2 button presses to raise / lower the level (for testing purposes). The code is simple enough.

The scale communicates with the computer to receive the level to be set. The level is calculated by my company’s Issue Tracker. The code interface of the computed part with some of my company’s API and therefore is not part of the code…. You will need to code your logic in Python code in the function “or this is gravity"Che dovrebbe restituire un numero intero da 5 (livello basso) a 1 (livello critico) come standard DEFCON 😉

A part of Python should be put into the crontab to regularly update the scale 😉

More photos of the project HERE, and the code HERE.

How to understand the defcon scale

This story appears in Forbes magazine on June 14, 2015. subscribe

I recently attended the John Mauldin Strategic Investments Conference, an annual event that brings together some of the best minds in finance and economics. With about twenty speakers in two and a half days, the word “inthisso” best describes the course. I walked away with the thought that the world was not on the brink of crisis, but that this crisis is still there. Most would see a bright future if only we could smoothly get out of the significant problems we faced since the 2008 crisis.

Most of the speakers identified the major financial bubbles currently threathising our economy–from junk bonds to housing prices and the U. S. dollar–but offered few solutions. After all, we are in uncharted waters today and neither the Federal Reserve nor Congress really knows which way to go. Our world has become so intertwined that no one wants to take actions that could start a currency or trade war. We do not live in a world of political action, but of political reaction. The Fed and the European Central Bank have become firefighters, not statesmen.

The current state of the world speaks for a defensive attitude. The consensus is that we will not restore normal economic growth without some trauma. Although the timing of the next crisis is uncertain, history tells us that staying on the market longer is more expensive than going out early. But is it too early? Since the timing, depth and origins of any crisis are uncertain, let’s take a chapter out of the U. S. military’s playbook for dealing with threats. They use the term DEFCON, which means a defensive readiness or a state of emergency. For your wallet, think of DEFCON as a defense of your financial health:

DEFCON 1 – I think we are in this place today.

    Keep your cash balance at least 10%.

  • Invest up to 10% in Gold (GLD) and Silver (SLV) ETFs.
  • Set trailing stop loss orders for your assets with long-term gains.
  • DEFCON 2 – Volatility explodes in the markets due to the accumulation of negative events at home or abroad.

    • Increase your cash position by up to 15%.
    • Take all your long-term earnings; postpone losses until the end of the year.
    • Set up mobile stop-loss orders for all your low dividend / interest assets.
    • Invest up to 15% in Gold (GLD) and Silver (SLV) ETFs.
    • Buy out-of-the-money bets on ETFs that best reflect your remaining exposure.
    • Buy a few index-linked ETFs to offset any falls in the value of your stock. For short equity indices, I recommend the ProShares line; for use with Dow 30 (DOG), for the S&P 500 (CII), for QQQ (PSQ) and for Russell 2000(RM).

    DEFCON 3 – Somewhere the panic has started that has spilled over the stock markets.

    • Liquidate all low-income and zero-income stocks.
    • Keep cash at home as well as gold.
    • Be patient. Turn off financial TV shows. The free consultation is not valid. Let events unfold as the adjustments involve different levels of action and reaction.

    DEFCON 4 – The crisis is underway, there is no end in sight. Central banks have conflicting goals.

    • Go to the mattresses (e. g. cash, gold and silver).

    Investors in need of steady income should be aware that although bonds, preferred stocks, MLPs and REITs also fall during a crisis, they will usually continue to pay interest and dividends and be among the first to recover from high payments. Therefore, you can choose to overcome the volatility of your income hedge.

    While I have faith that central bankers have learned much about how to handle the next crisis, their first priority will be to protect the banking system and their bosses, i. e., the government. Not investors. When a crisis comes, you will hear many happy conversations designed to calm rather than inform. One of the former Fed presidents at the conference, Larry Meyer, concluded with the encouraging words: “Good luck, you’ll need him.”

    Richard Lehmann is editor of Forbes / Lehmann Income Securities Investor and chairman of Lehmann Fridson Advisors.

    How to understand the defcon scale

    Business Insider reports that “Steve Deace, an influential conservative Iowa talk show host” has been making profound declarations that, should the Supreme Court strike down anti-gay marriage laws, “It’s going to raise the issue to Orange Threat Level, it’ll be DEFCON 6…” In the first instance Sig. È probabile che Deace si riferisca all’ormai defunto sistema di avviso di minaccia con codice colore istituito all’indomani degli attacchi dell’11 settembre, dove l’arancione era secondo solo all’avvertimento Red di un attacco imminente. As for the second point, Deace is completely destroying the DEFCON alert system, giving us the opportunity to explain our nuclear war metaphors once and for all.

    DEFCON stands for DEFense CONdition and in accordance withEncyclopedia of the Cold War“The DEFCON system is divided into five different alert levels with detailed, albeit ambiguous, descriptions and actions planned by military forces at each threat level.” Sig. Deace’s first error is that DEFCON scales from 1 to 5, not 6. To be charitable, though, he likely knew this and was making an exaggerated claim for effect. So what is DEFCON 5? Still from Encyclopedia of the Cold War, "DEFCON 5:Normal readiness for peace The lowest alarm level in the DEFCON system… ”DEFCON 5 is as low as alarms and is a traditional condition for most armed forces. Whenever someone threatens to enter DEFCON 5 about you or a loved one, be happy to accept their offer, as the friendship should be restored soon.

    From there, an alert with lower and lower numbers is generated. DEFCON 4, the lowest alert we’ve seen since 9/11, represents “Normal and posted information and security measures placed,"Ma la prontezza aumenta davvero di 3. In DEFCON 3,"Increase in the readiness of the force above the normal readiness… The security of the base is strengthened and information gathering [and] other changes to the configuration of the armed forces are underway ”, including the arming of nuclear warheads.

    Il più alto che siamo mai stati è DEFCON 2, "Forces the readiness to increase further, but less than the maximum readiness". Part of the army was elevated to DEFCON 2 during the Cuban Missile Crisis, where" nuclear weapons … were loaded and could be used at the discretion of surprisingly low-ranking officers, "according to the aptly titled book.DEFCON 2: State on the verge of nuclear war during the Cuban missile crisis.

    DEFCON 1: "Maximum readiness of forces"It has never been achieved as far as we know. That is a blessing, as" At this DEFCON level US military forces are ready to be deployed, including preparation for full-scale thermonuclear war. "

    Where did this Steve Deace and his claim that DEFCON 6 have an exaggerated effect come from? Going from 1 as a full-scale thermonuclear war to 5 as a normal period of peace, 6 appears to be peace on earth, goodwill for man, possibly escalating to rainbows all over the earth. Let’s hope this is the authority of the Supreme Court.

    About the author

    How to understand the defcon scale

    Jonathan Coppage isCT scan Associate Publisher. He earned his BA in Political Science from North Carolina State University and previously studied at the University of Chicago where he studied Fundamentals: Problems and Texts with a high concentration of books. Jonathan also worked on this New Atlantis: A Journal of Technology and Society. You can follow Jon on Twitter @JonCoppage or contact us by email at [email protected]

    Even after the end of the world, we will need stories.

    Nuke Opera 2020: Think Golf, Not Bowling – Understanding DEFCON Levels:

    In trying to find an idea for something short and simple to write in today’s post, I considered a few topics before deciding it would be a good idea to have a short article on the DEFCON Availability Alert System.

    The basics:

    DEFCON, or Defense Preparedness, is an early warning system developed by the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff as a way to improve communication in the event of a nuclear escalation. The orders went into effect in November 1959 as part of a joint agreement between the United States and Canada and were intended to allow both countries to act decisively in the event of a Soviet missile attack.

    Like other warning systems, both military and civilian, DEFCON layers are designed to be a quick, clear and concise way to communicate information to soldiers on a local, regional, and even global scale. Different US military commands can be at different DEFCON levels, depending on what’s going on in their particular region. For example, US troops in the Middle East may be at a higher DEFCON level than troops stationed in North America or Asia.

    It’s a common mistake in pop culture and other areas to assume that the lower the level the better. When Reagan was shot, Defense Secretary Casper Weinberger thought we should go to DEFCON 2 as he mistakenly believed it meant low alert, just a step above peace in peacetime. In fact, the opposite is true. DEFCON 5 is a moment of peace from every point of view. DEFCON 1, on the other hand, means that either a nuclear war will break out or that the missiles have already started.

    Levels, from lowest to highest, run like this (Note: Words in parentheses refer to terms used during military exercises to avoid incidents such as the one that happened in Hawaii in 2018.

    • DEFCON 5 (POWER OFF) – lower standby status; essentially peacetime, everything’s fine, nothing to see here.
    • DEFCON 4 (DOUBLE SUCH) – state of alert in question identified above normal readiness; there’s an increase in atthistion paid to intelligence sources and security measures are strengthened.
    • DEFCON 3 (ROUND HOUSE) – this is the first step towards war; at this level of readiness, the Air Force is ready for mobilization within fifteen minutes. This is the level reached by the United States after the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York and the Pentagon. We returned to DEFCON 4 by 14 September 2001.
      • A regional example of DEFCON 3 occurred in the demilitarized zone along the North Korean border in August 1976, when North Korean soldiers killed two American soldiers in an accident with a poplar.
    • DEFCON 2 (FAST PACE) – at this level, we’re one step away from nuclear war; The US military is ready not only to deploy, but also to face the enemy in less than six hours. On October 4, 1962, during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) was placed on DEFCON 2 and remained there until November 15, 1962. The rest of the US armed forces were placed on DEFCON 3.
    • DEFCON 1 (VOLTAGE GUN) – at this level, we’re at war. Nuclear war. If the missiles(among other weapons) aren’t already en route to their targets, they will be soon. This is the highest level of readiness and thankfully we’ve never reached it. We hope we never do.

    As a sign of the times, White House officials have finally decided to write a plan to deal with future cyber attacks that could negatively impact the US homeland and its interests.

    The new guidelines, which were released earlier this week, detail how the government will assess the severity of cyber attacks, who is responsible for organizing a response, and how urgent the problem needs to be resolved – a list of protocols that many believe should have been books years ago.

    "Siamo nel mezzo di una rivoluzione delle minacce informatiche, che sta diventando ogni giorno più persisthiste, diversificata, più frequente e più pericolosa", ha affermato Lisa Monaco, consulente per la sicurezza interna.

    The scale starts at level zero, an attack that has almost negligible impact and goes up to level five, a complete emergency that risks affecting highly critical national infrastructures and systems such as the power grid and communications and financial systems.

    How to understand the defcon scale

    Fig 1. The new DEFCON computer scale

    The scale works by evaluating the expected consequences of an attack. For example, if an attack is to be simply disruptive, such as a DoS attack that temporarily shuts down servers by flooding them with packets, it receives a low rating, while a targeted attack on the state power grid might receive the highest rating.

    After the risk has been assessed, most likely by the person who discovered the breach, the plan details who should be informed immediately and what measures should be taken. thisone thing the White House doesn’t say however is how the government will respond to these attacks, especially those conducted by sovereign nations.

    It’s important to note, though, that despite cyber-attacks becoming more and more common as technology advances and people gain a better understanding of how to use it for ill, there hasn’t been a level five attack on the US government yet but there’s always a first time for everything. Especially as more and more sovereign and criminal nations are starting to use robo-hackers to probe and penetrate American networks.

    "Non c’era nessun incidente noto che potesse essere considerato un livello cinque … Il sospetto attacco informatico russo alla rete elettrica ucraina a dicembre, che ha causato interruzioni di corrente diffuse, sarebbe probabilmente di livello quattro – un evento" grave "che potrebbe causare" significativo " danni per la sicurezza pubblica o la sicurezza nazionale”, ha affermato Monaco.

    Even so, in these modern days and ages with many new technologies like artificial intelligence and quantum computing that could potentially fall into the wrong hands, it’s always good to have a plan, let’s just hope you never have to use it.

    Connected with

    How to understand the defcon scale

    DARPA teams compete to find the best robo-hacker in the world

    How to understand the defcon scale

    The US military funds cameras that see rounded corners

    Mateusz Gryf

    Mateusz Gryf, described as “this Adviser behind the Advisers” and a “Young Kurzweil”, is the founder and CEO of the World Futures Forum and the 311 Institute, a global Futures and Deep Futures consulting firm operating between dates 2020-2070 , and is an award-winning futurist and author of the “Code of the Future” series. Regularly featured in the global media, including AP, BBC, Bloomberg, CNBC, Discovery, RT, Viacom, and WIRED, Matthew’s ability to identify, track, and explain the impacts of hundreds of revolutionary emerging technologies on global culture, industry and society, is unparalleled. Recognised for the past six years as one of the world’s foremost futurists, innovation and strategy experts Matthew is an international speaker who helps governments, investors, multi-nationals and regulators around the world envision, build and lead an inclusive, sustainable future. A rare talent Matthew’s recent work includes mentoring Lunar XPrize teams, re-envisioning global education and training with the G20, and helping the world’s largest organisations envision and ideate the future of their products and services, industries, and countries. Matthew’s clients include three Prime Ministers and several governments, including the G7, Accenture, Aon, Bain & Co, BCG, Credit Suisse, Dell EMC, Dentons, Deloitte, E&Y, GEMS, Huawei, JPMorgan Chase, KPMG, Lego, McKinsey, PWC, Qualcomm, SAP, Samsung, Sopra Steria, T-Mobile, and many more.

    How to understand the defcon scale

    In March, in response to the escalation of the pandemic, policy makers scrapped businesses and individuals unprecedented in the scope and scale of economic lifelines. The variety of initiatives is striking not only in scope and scope, but also in the pace of their implementation. Within two weeks, politicians had achieved the equivalent of DEFCON 2 and, in some cases, DEFCON 1. War rhetoric was common in many countries.

    How to understand the defcon scale

    As the chart above shows, we enter DEFCON 2 in April in terms of monetary policy, fiscal policy and financial regulation.

    Importantly, different sectoral decision makers move through the DEFCON levels at different speeds. Le banche centrali sono state le prime a raggiungere il DEFCON 5. Le autorità di regolamentazione finanziaria hanno seguito il DEFCON 5 poiché la maggior parte delle autorità di regolamentazione delle economie sviluppate ha incoraggiato in modo informale le banche a fornire la massima flessibilità ai mutuatari che hanno difficoltà a pagare il proprio debito o a regolare le passività nell’arena commerciale.

    Data from our PolicyScope platform dramatically illustrates the dynamics:

    How to understand the defcon scale

    How to understand the defcon scale

    Action on COVID-19 (which is the term politicians prefer to use when taking technical action) far outstripped the rhetoric from late February to late March.

    If capitalism is a failure, what is the alternative? | Data-oriented investor

    In the current political sphere, during his rhetorical journey, we can all come face to face with trendy slogans like …

    Some may wonder if policymakers still have the firepower to deal with the pandemic if the disruptions and catastrophic loss of life in advanced economies (which are driving global growth) were to last until the summer. The answer is yes, but it will be long.

    Central banks and financial regulators can take important and gradual steps to expand the structures and requirements. Fiscal policymakers can create subsidy stimulus and support structures. However, there may be real limits to the extent to which these tax instruments can – or should – be used if tax payments are also pending. Secured loans are not well understood from a risk perspective in all credit instruments, from small and medium-sized loans to sovereign issues. Grants can severely distort competition and be difficult to mitigate later in the crisis.

    This leaves the trade ministers as the main mechanism for further economic support. As mentioned above, the trade ministers were the last to be involved. This is not surprising. Interruptions in the supply chain are not uncommon; they are often repaired within a quarter of an hour. Trade ministers are usually the last to utter the “BTI” rhetoric (whatever is needed). Despite the complex process of promoting cross-border cooperation, trade policy makers are more likely to engage in conflicting actions during times of stress. As noted recently, policymaking at the base of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs sometimes requires policy choices that in ordinary times would generate rancor and concerns about trade wars.

    W obecnej sytuacji wybrane obniżki ceł importowych przez niektóre kraje zostały zrekompensowane przez rozprzestrzenienie się zakazów eksportu z ponad 80 krajów w odniesieniu do sprzętu medycznego i w zeszłym tygodniu niektórych produktów rolnych. Extended customs clearance times for shipments to docks and border crossings create non-tariff barriers to imports that exacerbate issues in the supply chain. This increases the risk of major disruptions in the supply chain which will be much more difficult to resolve. As we noted in last week’s research note for the Mercatus Center, it is time for trade ministers to take relatively broad and bold action against their fellow fiscal, monetary and financial regulators.

    The global pandemic has not yet reached its peak. Policy makers can still loosen the rules and stay in DEFCON 4 for longer periods. The next moves are likely to be technical and incremental in most areas. Trade and fiscal policy will likely be the hardest hit in the near future.

    Stay informed. Our PolicyScope platform will capture every incremental movement at the height of the pandemic and then again when the economy is ready to recover.

    An earlier version of this post originally appeared at Traders Insight hosted by our strategic partners at Interactive Brokers in order to promote tomorrow’s webinar with them. Blog members are more than welcome to join us tomorrow(April 7) at noon EST to see what today’s platform data tells us about tomorrow’s policy trajectories. Please use THIS LINK from Interactive Brokers to register for the webinar.

    Articles tagged ‘Understanding Defcon’

    DEFCON "Rapporto dopo l’azione"

    Well, the next DEF CON hacker conference ended without mistakenly launching nuclear missiles or failing nationwide telecommunications. We can breathe a sigh of relief or try to understand what this kind of hacker / activist gathering is all about.

    This year’s conference, DEF CON 19, was held in Las Vegas(as it is each year since 1993) August 4th to August 7th. Even though I couldn’t attend in person, I learned a lot. Incidentally, learning and sharing are the main topics in hacker meetings, large amounts of information are disseminated and consumed voraciously.

    There were over 170 speakers at this DEF CON talking about everything from hacking computers to unlocking locks to social engineering. Many of these conversations were of a very technical nature that I would have had on my mind during the introductions. But many of the other talks were easy to understand and easily accessible to people who had a brief interest in the subject.

    Another great feature of DEF CON (and many other hacking matches) are the various hacker contests. Perhaps the best know game is ‘Capture thisFlag’, an epic hacking battle by teams of caffeinated enthusiasts. The winner of these competitions receives many bragging rights. In this DEF CON over 40 races of various types were held. Something for everyone!

    Many lay persons might imagine that many federal officers from many diverse federal agencies might ‘sneak in’ under cover and try to snag wanted hackers. But the truth is always stranger than fiction. This DEF CON (and all the others) was attended by agents from the FBI, DoD, NSA and others. What were they doing there if they hadn’t arrested the hackers? I’m looking to hire them! Hackers are in high demand. Think of a big job fair. Surreal.

    While people in general may frown down on ‘hackers’ or even feel they are all criminals(some are), hackers do serve a real purpose in our world, uncovering vulnerabilities and forcing patches and repairs to software and systems. Contattare le persone giuste può darti informazioni su come proteggere te stesso e i tuoi clienti e aiutarti a prepararti per gli attacchi che sembrano provenire dal campo di sinistra.

    When I was in the military (a few years before the end of the Cold War) we had to learn Soviet tactics. Knowledge of hacking is the same idea. It must also be a good idea. How do I know? Just ask the Fed’s.

    Please help us improve this article

    Defcon

    How to understand the defcon scale

    thisstate of defense readiness(DEFCON) is a state of emergency used by the US military. [1]

    The DEFCON system was developed by Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) and unified and defined combat commands. [2] It prescribes five graduated levels of readiness(or states of alert) for the U. S. military, and increase in severity from DEFCON 5(least severe) to DEFCON 1(most severe) to match varying military situations. [1]

    DEFCONs are a subsystem of a series of alert conditions, or LERTCON, which also includes emergency conditions (EMERGCON). [3] There is no single DEFCON status for a country, and indeed different branches of the military can be at different DEFCON levels at the same time. DEFCONs should not be confused with similar systems used by the U. S. military, such as Force Protection Conditions(FPCONS), Readiness Conditions(REDCONS), Information Operations Condition(INFOCON) and its future replacement Cyber Operations Condition(CYBERCON), [4] and Watch Conditions(WATCHCONS), or the former Homeland Security Advisory System used by the United States Department of Homeland Security.

    Contents

    • Levels 1
    • Story 2
      • DEFCON 2 2.1
        • Cuban crisis 2.1.1
        • The Gulf War 2.1.2
      • DEFCON 3 2.2
        • The Yom Kippur War 2.2.1
        • Operation Paul Bunyan 2.2.2
        • Attacks of 11 September 2.2.3
    • Operations 3
    • In other media 4
    • See also 5
    • References 6

    Horizontal

    DEFCONs vary by many commands and have changed over time [2], and the US Department of Defense uses exercise terms to refer to DEFCONs. [5] This is to avoid confusing practical commands with actual operational commands. [5] On January 12, 1966, NORAD “proposed to accept the JCS preparation conditions”, and the information on the levels was declassified in 2006: [6]

    Pause Deadline for exercises Description Readiness Color
    DEFCON 1 EXTRACTOR GUN Nuclear war is inevitable Maximum readiness White
    DEFCON 2 FAST RHYTHM The next step towards nuclear war Armed forces ready to be deployed and engaged in less than 6 hours Red
    DEFCON 3 ROUND HOUSE Increased strength readiness greater than that required for normal readiness Air Force ready to mobilize in 15 minutes Yellow
    DEFCON 4 DOUBLE Increased intelligence surveillance and strengthened security measures Readiness al di sopra della normale Green
    DEFCON 5 DISAPPEARANCE Lower standby Normal standby Blue

    History

    After NORAD was created, the command used different readiness levels(Normal, Increased, Maximum) subdivided into eight conditions, e. g., the “Maximum Readiness” level had two conditions “Air Defense Readiness” and “Air Defense Emergency”. [6] In October 1959, the JCS Chairman informed NORAD “that Canada and the U. S. had signed an agreement on increasing the operational readiness of NORAD forces during periods of international thission.” [6] After the agreement went into effect on October 2, 1959. [6] JCS specified the system with DEFCON in November 1959 for military commands. [2] thisinitial DEFCON system had “Alpha” and “Bravo” conditions(under DEFCON3) and Charlie/Delta under DEFCON4, plus an “Emergency” level higher than DEFCON1 with two conditions: “Defense Emergency” and the highest, “Air Defense Emergency”(“Hot Box” and “Big Noise” for exercises). [6]

    DEFCON 2

    Cuban crisis

    thishighest confirmed DEFCON ever was Level 2. During the Cuban crisis on October 22, 1962, the U. S. Armed Forces(with the exception of United States Army Europe(USAREUR)) were ordered to DEFCON 3. On October 24, Strategic Air Command(SAC) was ordered to DEFCON 2, while the rest of the U. S. Armed Forces remained at DEFCON 3. SAC remained at DEFCON 2 until November 15. [7]

    Gulf War

    On January 15, 1991, the Joint Chiefs of Staff declared DEFCON 2 in the opening phase of Operation Desert Storm during the Gulf War. [8]

    DEFCON 3

    The Yom Kippur War

    On October 6, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched a joint attack on Israel resulting in the The Yom Kippur War. thisU. S. became concerned that the Soviet Union might intervene, and on October 25, U. S. forces, including Strategic Air Command, Continental Air Defense Command, European Command and the Sixth Fleet, were placed at DEFCON 3. Over the following days, the various forces reverted to normal status with the Sixth Fleet standing down on November 17. [9]

    Operation Paul Bunyan

    Following the axe murder incident at Panmunjom on August 18, 1976, readiness levels for American forces in South Korea were increased to DEFCON 3, where they remained throughout Operation Paul Bunyan which followed thereafter. [10]