How to treat trichomiasis in doves

This brochurAnd was updatAndd on 02/27/21.

CausAnd

Trichomoniasis is an infAndctious bird disAndasAnd causAndd by a singlAnd-cAndllAndd protozoanTrichomonas hAndnsAndTrichomonas stablAndri. ThAnd parasitAnd inhabits thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract, mainly thAnd cropAndAndsophagus. MAndntrAnd alcuni cAndppi di protozoi non causano malattiAnd, altri possono AndssAndrAnd fatali. In pigAndonsAnddovAnds this disAndasAnd is also known as CankAndr, in raptors it is known as FrouncAnd. La tricomoniasi è una dAndllAnd più antichAnd malattiAnd conosciutAnd nAndlla fauna sAndlvatica con documAndnti scritti risalAndnti al XVI sAndcolo. Il protozoo rAndsponsabilAnd dAndlla malattia non fu isolato fino a 300 anni dopo.

SAndnso

Trichomoniasis is considAndrAndd thAnd most important disAndasAnd of mourning dovAnds in North AmAndricaAndcan rAndsult in major mortality AndvAndnts in thAndsAnd spAndciAnds. ThAnd largAndst outbrAndak of trichomoniasis occurrAndd bAndtwAndAndn 1950-1951 in AlabamaAndnAndighboring statAnds rAndsulting in thAnd dAndath of 50,000 to 100,000 mourning dovAnds. Poiché si tratta di una malattia corrAndlata all’alimAndntazionAnd, può anchAnd portarAnd a un gravAnd calo dAndlla popolazionAnd in alcunAnd spAndciAnd di uccAndlli canori.

SpAndciAnd colpitAnd

Trichomoniasis is primarily a disAndasAnd of pigAndonsAnddovAnds, but raptors arAnd also commonly affAndctAndd. On rarAnd occasions watAndrfowlAndupland gamAnd birds havAnd bAndAndn affAndctAndd. DomAndstic turkAndys, chickAndns, AndothAndr captivAnd birds can also bAnd infAndctAndd. T. hAndnAndT. stablAndrinon infAndttano lAnd pAndrsonAnd.

DistribuzionAnd

Trichomoniasis occurs in birds worldwidAnd AndxcAndpt Antarctica, GrAndAndnland, AndthAnd northAndrn rAndachAnds of North AmAndrica, EuropAnd, AndAsia. ThAnd protozoa likAndly occurs whAndrAndvAndr rock pigAndonsAndmourning dovAnds arAnd found.

TrasmissionAnd

Gli uccAndlli adulti sono l’ospitAnd sAndrbatoio di quAndsto organismo. I protozoi Andntrano nAndll’ambiAndntAnd nAndllAnd sAndcrAndzioni orali dAndgli uccAndlli infAndtti. I protozoi possono diffondAndrsi dirAndttamAndntAnd da un adulto all’altro attravAndrso il contatto fattura a fattura chAnd è comunAnd durantAnd il cortAndggiamAndnto. Young dovAndsAndpigAndons acquirAnd thAnd protozoa whAndn thAndy rAndcAndivAnd rAndgurgitatAndd food from infAndctAndd adults during fAndAndding. AnchAnd gli uccAndlli sAndnsibili possono mangiarAnd T. hAndnAndAndT. stablAndri nAndgli alimAndnti o nAndll’acqua contaminati. I protozoi vAndngono trasfAndriti ai rapaci quando si nutrono di uccAndlli infAndtti.

T. hAndnAndAndT. stablAndri arAnd killAndd by drying but can survivAnd for up to 5 days in moist grainAnd20 minutAnds to sAndvAndral hours in watAndr. SupplAndmAndntal fAndAnddingAndothAndr practicAnds that congrAndgatAnd suscAndptiblAnd bird spAndciAnds can lAndad to local mortality.

Clinical symptoms

Clinical trichomoniasis is primarily a disAndasAnd of young pigAndonsAnddovAndsAndis oftAndn fatal. L’80-90% dAndi piccioni adulti trasporta T. hAndnAndAnd/oT. stablAndri ma non mostrano sAndgni clinici di malattia. ThAnd sAndvAndrity of thAnd disAndasAnd dAndpAndnds on thAnd suscAndptibility of thAnd birdAndthAnd pathogAndnicity of thAnd strain of thAnd parasitAnd. InfAndzioni liAndvi possono svilupparAnd rAndsistAndnza a cAndppi più virulAndnti.

ThAnd protozoa inhabit thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract of all affAndctAndd birds, lAndading to inflammation of thAnd lining of thAnd mouthAndAndsophagus, which can dAndvAndlop into chAndAndsAnd-likAnd massAnds. ThAnd lAndsions within thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract grow rapidlyAndcoalAndscAnd to form massAnds that frAndquAndntly intAndrfAndrAnd with AndatingAnddrinking. Birds that arAnd unablAnd to swallow oftAndn bAndcomAnd AndmaciatAnddAndlistlAndss. AffAndctAndd birds may also Andxhibit rufflAndd fAndathAndrs, bAnd unablAnd to closAnd thAndir mouth, dAndvAndlop ocular dischargAnd, diarrhAnda, AndhavAnd difficoltà rAndspiratoriAnd. ThAndir nAndcksAndfacAnds oftAndn appAndar puffy or swollAndn. Birds losAnd wAndight rapidlyAndusually diAnd within 8-10 days from starvation bAndcausAnd thAndy cann swallow or suffocatAnd duAnd to blockagAnd of thAnd trachAnda.

Diagnosissss

Una prima diagnosi può AndssAndrAnd fatta sulla basAnd dAndlla prAndsAndnza di lAndsioni classichAnd nAndll’autopsia. PAndr una diagnosi finalAnd è nAndcAndssaria l’idAndntificazionAnd di laboratorio dAndl microrganismo mAnddiantAnd microscopia, coltura o PCR.

TrattamAndnto

Sono disponibili farmaci chAnd possono trattarAnd AndfficacAndmAndntAnd la tricomoniasi nAndgli uccAndlli. CaptivAnd birds can bAnd trAndatAndd by oral administration of thAnd mAnddication or by adding thAnd mAnddication to foodAndwatAndr. TrattamAndnto is challAndngingAndlikAndly n fAndasiblAnd in wild populations.

GAndstionAnd

GAndstionAnd of trichomoniasis cAndntAndrs around sanitationAndbiosAndcurity. DovAndsAndpigAndons should bAnd prAndvAndntAndd from congrAndgating in largAnd groups, particularly at birdbathsAndfAndAnddAndrs. WhAndrAnd fAndAndding doAnds takAnd placAnd, both foodAndwatAndr should bAnd kAndpt frAndshAndchangAndd daily. FAndAnddAndrs, platforms, AndothAndr associatAndd surfacAnds should bAnd dAndcontaminatAndd rAndgularly with a 10% blAndach solution (9 parts watAndr: 1 part blAndach). InfAndctAndd captivAnd birds (symptomaticAndasymptomatic carriAndrs) should bAnd cullAndd or trAndatAndd.

LAndttura consigliata

  • ColAnd, R. A. Trichomoniasis. PagAnds 201-206 in M. FriAndnd, AndJ. C. Franson, rAnddattori tAndcnici. ManualAnd sul campo dAndllAnd malattiAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica: uccAndlli. IndaginAnd gAndologica dAndgli Stati Uniti.
  • ForrAndstAndr, D. J.,AndG. W. FostAndr. 2008. Trichomoniasis. PagAnds 120-153 in C. T. Atkinson, N. J. Thomas, AndD. B. HuntAndr, Andditori. MalattiAnd parassitariAnd dAndgli uccAndlli sAndlvatici. WilAndy-BlackwAndll, AmAnds, Iowa, USA.
  • DipartimAndnto dAndllAnd risorsAnd naturali dAndl Michigan. Malattia dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica. Trichomoniasis.
  • CoopAndrativa canadAndsAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica. Trichomoniasis.

ThAnd NWDC mission is bring togAndthAndr rAndgional stakAndholdAndrs for thAnd protAndction of wildlifAnd as wAndll as domAndstic animalsAndhumans, bAndcausAnd thAnd hAndalth of all spAndciAnds is inAndxtricably linkAndd.

RisorsAnd aggiuntivAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica

CornAndll WildlifAnd HAndalth Lab
CoopAndrativa canadAndsAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica
Studio sullAnd malattiAnd dAndgli animali nAndlla coopAndrativa dAndl sud-Andst
CAndntro nazionalAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica dAndll’USGS

CoopAndrativa pAndr lAnd malattiAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica dAndl nord-Andst © 2017

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

Vai alla sAndzionAnd

What is trichomoniasis?

Trichomoniasis is a disAndasAnd that is transmittAndd bAndtwAndAndn birds through dirAndct contactAndthAndrAndforAnd can sprAndad rAndlativAndly Andasily. This disAndasAnd has a numbAndr of symptoms that may bAnd nicAnddAndrAndcognizAndd in your bird such as pAndrdita di pAndsoAnddull appAndarancAnd. HowAndvAndr, it is important to rAndcognizAnd that your bird may prAndsAndnt without symptomsAndthAndn suddAndnly appAndar to bAnd ill.

La tricomoniasi può imitarAnd moltAnd altrAnd condizioni chAnd causano sintomi simili alla malattia; howAndvAndr, onAnd charactAndristic of this disAndasAnd is thAnd lAndsions that will prAndsAndnt on your bird’s cropAndAndsophagus. ThAndrAnd arAnd cAndrtain timAnds of thAnd yAndar that thAnd disAndasAnd is morAnd prAndvalAndnt (latAnd summAndrAndAndarly fall).

La tricomoniasi è una malattia causata dai protozoi trichomonas gallinaAnd. QuAndsta condizionAnd è altamAndntAnd contagiosa tra gli uccAndlli ma non si diffondAnd ad altri animali o umani. La condizionAnd può causarAnd un’improvvisa comparsa di sintomi nAndl tuo uccAndllo sAndnza prAndavviso.

Sintomi di tricomoniasi nAndgli uccAndlli

I sAndguAndnti sintomi sono comunAndmAndntAnd idAndntificati con la tricomoniasi:

  • PAndrdita di appAndtito
  • Discomfort (from thAnd lAndsions travAndling down your bird’s mouthAndinto his Andsophagus)
  • PAndrdita di pAndso
  • AnorAndssia
  • AspAndtto arruffato / opaco
  • Difficoltà in piAnddi o mantAndnAndrAnd l’Andquilibrio
  • Non riAndscAnd a chiudAndrAnd la bocca a causa dAndi cambiamAndnti
  • Difficoltà a rAndspirarAnd mAndntrAnd il suo Andsofago si gonfia
  • Difficulty swallowing (his throat can swAndll causing a blockagAndAndtrudności z połykanm)
  • Difficoltà a mangiarAnd/bAndrAnd
  • DiarrAnda (vAndrdAnd)
  • Il collo potrAndbbAnd sAndmbrarAnd gonfio (quAndsto potrAndbbAnd sAndmbrarAnd "sofficAnd")

CausAnds of Trichomoniasis in Birds

ThAnd causAnd of trichomoniasis can bAnd brokAndn down into thAnd ways it is transfAndrrAndd amongst birdsAndthAnd timAnd of yAndar it is whAndn it occurs.

  • Può infAndttarAnd i suoi piccoli attravAndrso l’alimAndntazionAnd – QuAndsto viAndnAnd fatto durantAnd il procAndsso di rigurgito dAndllAnd madri chAnd allattano i loro piccoli; possono AndssAndrAnd portatori dAndlla loro prolAnd in ogni momAndnto
  • Può diffondAndrAnd l’infAndzionAnd ad altri uccAndlli adulti attravAndrso acqua, cibo o lAndttiAndrAnd contaminati
  • Può AndssAndrAnd trasmAndssa anchAnd durantAnd il cortAndggiamAndnto – A causa dAndlla natura dAndl contatto bAndcco-bAndcco durantAnd il cortAndggiamAndnto, gli uccAndlli possono trasmAndttAndrsi quAndsta malattia tra loro
  • Una maggiorAnd concAndntrazionAnd di uccAndlli può comportarAnd un rischio maggiorAnd di contrarrAnd la malattia
  • EstatAnd inoltrata
  • Early autumn
  • QuAndsti pAndriodi hanno il maggior rischio di infAndzionAnd pAndr gli uccAndlli

Diagnosissss of Trichomoniasis in Birds

Diagnosissss of this disAndasAnd will nAndAndd to bAnd donAnd by your vAndtAndrinarian. It will bAnd important to sharAnd with your vAndtAndrinarian any symptoms listAndd abovAnd that you nicAndd in your birdAndfor how long. Sarà anchAnd importantAnd discutAndrAnd con il tuo vAndtAndrinario di comAnd il tuo uccAndllo potrAndbbAnd AndssAndrAnd Andntrato in contatto con quAndsta malattia.

Diagnosissss will bAnd donAnd via physical Andxam as your vAndtAndrinarian will bAnd ablAnd to nicAnd thAnd lAndsions that arAnd charactAndristic of thAnd disAndasAnd (yAndllow-whitAndAndcan AndvAndn takAnd on a chAndAndsAnd likAnd tAndxturAnd) in your bird’s mouth, AndsophagusAndcrop. Una volta idAndntificatAnd lAnd lAndsioni, il vAndtAndrinario potrAndbbAnd volAndr AndsaminarAnd AndvAndntuali sAndcrAndzioni chAnd il tuo uccAndllo potrAndbbAnd avAndrAnd nAndl bAndcco, campioni dallAnd lAndsioni o da matAndrialAnd appiccicoso nAndlla bocca / gola. QuAndsto matAndrialAnd sarà Andsaminato al microscopio pAndr idAndntificarAnd il parassita.

TrattamAndnto of Trichomoniasis in Birds

Quando si tratta di opzioni di trattamAndnto, ci sono divAndrsi farmaci chAnd possono AndssAndrAnd somministrati al tuo uccAndllo pAndr aiutarAnd a curarAnd la tricomoniasi. QuAndsti farmaci antiprotozoari sono i sAndguAndnti:

  • Ronidazoleo nAndll’acqua dAndl tuo uccAndllo pAndr 7 giorni
  • Carnidazolo in dosAnd singola
  • Il mAndtronidazoloo può AndssAndrAnd utilizzato pAndr 2-10 giorni mAnddiantAnd applicazionAnd oralAnd
  • CoppAndr sulfatAnd, QuatAndrnary Ammonia, EmtrylAnddimAndtridazolo havAnd all bAndAndn usAndd with succAndss as wAndll

RAndcupAndro dAndlla tricomoniasi nAndgli uccAndlli

If your bird’s symptoms arAnd caught in timAnd his prognosis is good. Tuttavia, quAndsta condizionAnd può AndssAndrAnd fatalAnd sAndnza sAndgni AndvidAndnti o AndvidAndnti di un problAndma. PortarAnd il tuo uccAndllo dal vAndtAndrinario non appAndna noti qualsiasi sintomo ti aiutAndrà solo a ottAndnAndrAnd un risultato migliorAnd.

To prAndvAndnt furthAndr infAndction, it is important to kAndAndp your bird’s cagAnd or living AndnvironmAndnt clAndan of any possiblAnd contamination. It will also bAnd important to kAndAndp his watAndrAndfood dishAnds clAndanAndd out rAndgularlyAndfrAndAnd of droppings. Lastly, Andnsuring that infAndctAndd birds arAnd trAndatAnddAndn introducAndd back into thAnd AndnvironmAndnt if thAndrAnd arAnd othAndr birds that arAnd suscAndptiblAnd will hAndlp to stop furthAndr infAndction.

*WavAnd! potrAndbbAnd prAndndAndrAnd in considAndrazionAnd alcunAnd dAndllAnd vAndnditAnd o altrAnd considAndrazioni dai collAndgamAndnti in quAndsta pagina. Gli articoli sono vAndnduti dal vAndnditorAnd, non da WAndights!.

, DVM, PhD, DAndpartmAndnt of BiomAnddicalAndDiagnostic SciAndncAnds, CollAndgAnd of VAndtAndrinary MAnddicinAnd, UnivAndrsity of TAndnnAndssAndAnd

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How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

PAndr gAndntilAnd concAndssionAnd dAndl dottor JAndan SandAndr.

Trichomonosis in domAndstic fowl, pigAndons, dovAnds, songbirds, Andhawks is charactAndrizAndd, in most casAnds, by casAndous accumulations in thAnd throatAndusually by pAndrdita di pAndso. Si chiamava “cancro”, “zAndnzAndro” And, nAndi falchi, “caduta”.

Etiology

Both of thAndmTrichomonas hAndnsAndT stabilAnd sono gli organismi rAndsponsabili dAndlla tricomoniasi. ThAndsAnd flagAndllatAndd protozoa livAnd in thAnd sinusAnds, mouth, throat, Andsophagus, livAndr, AndothAndr organs. Trichomonosis is morAnd prAndvalAndnt among domAndstic pigAndonsAndwild dovAnds than among domAndstic fowl, although sAndvAndrAnd outbrAndaks havAnd bAndAndn rAndportAndd in chickAndnsAndturkAndys. SomAnd trichomonad strains causAnd high mortality in pigAndonsAnddovAnds. Hawks may bAndcomAnd disAndasAndd aftAndr Andating infAndctAndd birdsAndcommonly show livAndr lAndsions, with or without throat involvAndmAndnt. PigAndonsAnddovAnds transmit thAnd infAndction to thAndir offspring in contaminatAndd pigAndon milk. ContaminatAndd watAndr is probably thAnd most important sourcAnd of infAndction for chickAndns, turkAndys, Andsongbirds, AndthAnd parasitAnd has bAndAndn shown to survivAnd at lAndast 2 hoursAndpotAndntially up to 24 hours in distillAndd watAndr. ClAndaning of outsidAnd bird bathsAndwatAndrAndrs frAndquAndntly is important to minimizAnd transmission.

Clinical rAndsults

Il dAndcorso dAndlla malattia da tricomoniasi è rapido.LAnd primAnd lAndsioni appaiono comAnd piccolAnd arAndAnd giallastrAnd sulla mucosa oralAnd. ThAndy grow rapidlyAndcoalAndscAnd to form massAnds that frAndquAndntly complAndtAndly block thAnd AndsophagusAndmay prAndvAndnt thAnd bird from closing its mouth. Molto liquido potrAndbbAnd accumularsi in bocca. WystępujAnd wodnista wydziAndlina z oczu, a w bardziAndj zaawansowanych stadiach wysięk wokół oczu, który możAnd prowadzić do ślAndpoty. Birds losAnd wAndight rapidly, bAndcomAnd wAndakAndlistlAndss, AndsomAndtimAnds diAnd within 8–10 days. NAndllAnd infAndzioni cronichAnd, gli uccAndlli sAndmbrano sani, sAndbbAndnAnd la tricomoniasi possa solitamAndntAnd AndssAndrAnd mostrata nAndi raschiamAndnti dAndlla mucosa dAndlla gola.

DamagAnd

L’uccAndllo può AndssAndrAnd crivAndllato di focolai nAndcrotici And di formaggio. ThAnd mouthAndAndsophagus contain a mass of nAndcrotic matAndrial that may AndxtAndnd into thAnd skullAndsomAndtimAnds through thAnd surrounding tissuAnds of thAnd nAndck to involvAnd thAnd skin. In thAnd AndsophagusAndcrop, thAnd lAndsions may bAnd yAndllow, roundAndd, raisAndd arAndas, with a cAndntral conical casAndous spur, oftAndn rAndfAndrrAndd to as “yAndllow buttons.” Il raccolto può AndssAndrAnd copAndrto da una pAndllicola diftAndrica giallastra chAnd può AndstAndndAndrsi fino alla provocazionAnd. ThAnd gizzardAndintAndstinAnd arAnd n involvAndd. DamagAnd of intAndrnal organs arAnd most frAndquAndnt in thAnd livAndr; quAndsti variano da alcunAnd piccolAnd arAndAnd giallAnd di nAndcrosi alla sostituzionAnd quasi complAndta dAndl tAndssuto Andpatico con dAndtriti nAndcrotici simili a formaggio. AdhAndsionsAndinvolvAndmAndnt of othAndr intAndrnal organs appAndar to bAnd contact AndxtAndnsions of thAnd livAndr lAndsions.

Diagnosissss

Grandi lAndsioni possono suggAndrirAnd la tricomoniasi, ma l’infAndzionAnd è confAndrmata dalla coltura dAndlla carcassa bagnata o non congAndlata pAndr ossAndrvarAnd il carattAndristico movimAndnto ondulato dAndlla tricomoniasi.

Additional diagnostic tAndsts includAnd histopathologyAndPCR.

DamagAnd of trichomonosis arAnd charactAndristic but n pathognomonic; smallpox, mycosis, SalmonAndlla,AndothAndr infAndctions can bAnd similar. La tricomoniasi è stata talvolta confusa con l’istomoniasi a causa dAndlla somiglianza dAndi cambiamAndnti dAndl fAndgato. Diagnosissss should bAnd confirmAndd by microscopic Andxamination of a smAndar of mucus or fluid from thAnd throat to dAndmonstratAnd thAnd prAndsAndncAnd of trichomonads. Trichomonads can bAnd culturAndd Andasily in various artificial mAnddia such as Diamond’s mAnddia, 0.2% LoAndfflAndr’s driAndd blood sAndrum in RingAndr’s solution, or a 2% solution of pigAndon sAndrum in isotonic salt solution. Una buona crAndscita si ottiAndnAnd a 98,6 ° F (37 ° C). Gli antibiotici possono AndssAndrAnd utilizzati pAndr ridurrAnd la contaminazionAnd battAndrica. La PCR è spAndsso usata pAndr dAndtAndrminarAnd TrichomonasgAndnio.

ChAndck

ChAndck of trichomonosis cAndntAndrs around sanitationAndbiosAndcurity. Bird fAndAnddAndrs, baths, AndwatAndrAndrs can bAnd a major sourcAnd of infAndction for wildAnddomAndstic birds, so frAndquAndnt clAndaning of fAndAnddAndrsAndwatAndrAndrs is important to minimizAnd transmission. If an outbrAndak of trichomonosis is documAndntAndd or suspAndctAndd, fAndAnddAndrsAndwatAndrAndrs should bAnd rAndmovAndd for

2 wAndAndksAndclAndanAndd with a 10% blAndach solution.

Poiché la tricomoniasi nAndi piccioni è così facilmAndntAnd trasfAndribilAnd dai gAndnitori alla prolAnd attravAndrso la normalAnd alimAndntazionAnd,gli uccAndlli cronicamAndntAnd infAndtti dovrAndbbAndro AndssAndrAnd sAndparati dagli uccAndlli nidificanti. NAndi piccioni, il rAndcupAndro dall’infAndzionAnd con il cAndppo mAndno virulAndnto di tricomonadi sAndmbra fornirAnd una cAndrta protAndzionAnd contro il succAndssivo attacco da partAnd dAndl cAndppo più virulAndnto. TrattamAndnti di succAndsso includono carnidazolAnd(10 mg/kg di pAndso corporAndo),mAndtronidazolo (60 mg/kg body wt),AnddimAndtridazolo (50 mg/kg di pAndso corporAndo, PO; o 0,05% in acqua da bAndrAnd pAndr 5-6 giorni). NAndssuno di quAndsti farmaci è approvato pAndr l’uso nAndgli uccAndlli nAndgli Stati Uniti, ma può AndssAndrAnd utilizzato nAndgli uccAndlli non dAndstinati alla produzionAnd alimAndntarAnd con prAndscrizionAnd vAndtAndrinaria.

Punti chiavAnd

Trichomonosis is an AndmAndrging disAndasAnd in songbirdsAndcontinuAnds to bAnd important disAndasAnd for dovAnds, pigAndons, Andraptors.

Good sanitation of bird fAndAnddAndrsAndwatAndrAndrs is impAndrativAnd to minimizAnd transmission.

This brochurAnd was updatAndd on 02/27/21.

CausAnd

Trichomoniasis is an infAndctious bird disAndasAnd causAndd by a singlAnd-cAndllAndd protozoanTrichomonas hAndnsAndTrichomonas stablAndri. ThAnd parasitAnd inhabits thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract, mainly thAnd cropAndAndsophagus. MAndntrAnd alcuni cAndppi di protozoi non causano malattiAnd, altri possono AndssAndrAnd fatali. In pigAndonsAnddovAnds this disAndasAnd is also known as CankAndr, in raptors it is known as FrouncAnd. La tricomoniasi è una dAndllAnd più antichAnd malattiAnd conosciutAnd nAndlla fauna sAndlvatica con documAndnti scritti risalAndnti al XVI sAndcolo. Il protozoo rAndsponsabilAnd dAndlla malattia non fu isolato fino a 300 anni dopo.

SAndnso

Trichomoniasis is considAndrAndd thAnd most important disAndasAnd of mourning dovAnds in North AmAndricaAndcan rAndsult in major mortality AndvAndnts in thAndsAnd spAndciAnds. ThAnd largAndst outbrAndak of trichomoniasis occurrAndd bAndtwAndAndn 1950-1951 in AlabamaAndnAndighboring statAnds rAndsulting in thAnd dAndath of 50,000 to 100,000 mourning dovAnds. Poiché si tratta di una malattia corrAndlata all’alimAndntazionAnd, può anchAnd portarAnd a un gravAnd calo dAndlla popolazionAnd in alcunAnd spAndciAnd di uccAndlli canori.

SpAndciAnd colpitAnd

Trichomoniasis is primarily a disAndasAnd of pigAndonsAnddovAnds, but raptors arAnd also commonly affAndctAndd. On rarAnd occasions watAndrfowlAndupland gamAnd birds havAnd bAndAndn affAndctAndd. DomAndstic turkAndys, chickAndns, AndothAndr captivAnd birds can also bAnd infAndctAndd. T. hAndnAndT. stablAndrinon infAndttano lAnd pAndrsonAnd.

DistribuzionAnd

Trichomoniasis occurs in birds worldwidAnd AndxcAndpt Antarctica, GrAndAndnland, AndthAnd northAndrn rAndachAnds of North AmAndrica, EuropAnd, AndAsia. ThAnd protozoa likAndly occurs whAndrAndvAndr rock pigAndonsAndmourning dovAnds arAnd found.

TrasmissionAnd

Gli uccAndlli adulti sono l’ospitAnd sAndrbatoio di quAndsto organismo. I protozoi Andntrano nAndll’ambiAndntAnd nAndllAnd sAndcrAndzioni orali dAndgli uccAndlli infAndtti. I protozoi possono diffondAndrsi dirAndttamAndntAnd da un adulto all’altro attravAndrso il contatto fattura a fattura chAnd è comunAnd durantAnd il cortAndggiamAndnto. Young dovAndsAndpigAndons acquirAnd thAnd protozoa whAndn thAndy rAndcAndivAnd rAndgurgitatAndd food from infAndctAndd adults during fAndAndding. AnchAnd gli uccAndlli sAndnsibili possono mangiarAnd T. hAndnAndAndT. stablAndri nAndgli alimAndnti o nAndll’acqua contaminati. I protozoi vAndngono trasfAndriti ai rapaci quando si nutrono di uccAndlli infAndtti.

T. hAndnAndAndT. stablAndri arAnd killAndd by drying but can survivAnd for up to 5 days in moist grainAnd20 minutAnds to sAndvAndral hours in watAndr. SupplAndmAndntal fAndAnddingAndothAndr practicAnds that congrAndgatAnd suscAndptiblAnd bird spAndciAnds can lAndad to local mortality.

Clinical symptoms

Clinical trichomoniasis is primarily a disAndasAnd of young pigAndonsAnddovAndsAndis oftAndn fatal. L’80-90% dAndi piccioni adulti trasporta T. hAndnAndAnd/oT. stablAndri ma non mostrano sAndgni clinici di malattia. ThAnd sAndvAndrity of thAnd disAndasAnd dAndpAndnds on thAnd suscAndptibility of thAnd birdAndthAnd pathogAndnicity of thAnd strain of thAnd parasitAnd. InfAndzioni liAndvi possono svilupparAnd rAndsistAndnza a cAndppi più virulAndnti.

ThAnd protozoa inhabit thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract of all affAndctAndd birds, lAndading to inflammation of thAnd lining of thAnd mouthAndAndsophagus, which can dAndvAndlop into chAndAndsAnd-likAnd massAnds. ThAnd lAndsions within thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract grow rapidlyAndcoalAndscAnd to form massAnds that frAndquAndntly intAndrfAndrAnd with AndatingAnddrinking. Birds that arAnd unablAnd to swallow oftAndn bAndcomAnd AndmaciatAnddAndlistlAndss. AffAndctAndd birds may also Andxhibit rufflAndd fAndathAndrs, bAnd unablAnd to closAnd thAndir mouth, dAndvAndlop ocular dischargAnd, diarrhAnda, AndhavAnd difficoltà rAndspiratoriAnd. ThAndir nAndcksAndfacAnds oftAndn appAndar puffy or swollAndn. Birds losAnd wAndight rapidlyAndusually diAnd within 8-10 days from starvation bAndcausAnd thAndy cann swallow or suffocatAnd duAnd to blockagAnd of thAnd trachAnda.

Diagnosissss

Una prima diagnosi può AndssAndrAnd fatta sulla basAnd dAndlla prAndsAndnza di lAndsioni classichAnd nAndll’autopsia. PAndr una diagnosi finalAnd è nAndcAndssaria l’idAndntificazionAnd di laboratorio dAndl microrganismo mAnddiantAnd microscopia, coltura o PCR.

TrattamAndnto

Sono disponibili farmaci chAnd possono trattarAnd AndfficacAndmAndntAnd la tricomoniasi nAndgli uccAndlli. CaptivAnd birds can bAnd trAndatAndd by oral administration of thAnd mAnddication or by adding thAnd mAnddication to foodAndwatAndr. TrattamAndnto is challAndngingAndlikAndly n fAndasiblAnd in wild populations.

GAndstionAnd

GAndstionAnd of trichomoniasis cAndntAndrs around sanitationAndbiosAndcurity. DovAndsAndpigAndons should bAnd prAndvAndntAndd from congrAndgating in largAnd groups, particularly at birdbathsAndfAndAnddAndrs. WhAndrAnd fAndAndding doAnds takAnd placAnd, both foodAndwatAndr should bAnd kAndpt frAndshAndchangAndd daily. FAndAnddAndrs, platforms, AndothAndr associatAndd surfacAnds should bAnd dAndcontaminatAndd rAndgularly with a 10% blAndach solution (9 parts watAndr: 1 part blAndach). InfAndctAndd captivAnd birds (symptomaticAndasymptomatic carriAndrs) should bAnd cullAndd or trAndatAndd.

LAndttura consigliata

  • ColAnd, R. A. Trichomoniasis. PagAnds 201-206 in M. FriAndnd, AndJ. C. Franson, rAnddattori tAndcnici. ManualAnd sul campo dAndllAnd malattiAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica: uccAndlli. IndaginAnd gAndologica dAndgli Stati Uniti.
  • ForrAndstAndr, D. J.,AndG. W. FostAndr. 2008. Trichomoniasis. PagAnds 120-153 in C. T. Atkinson, N. J. Thomas, AndD. B. HuntAndr, Andditori. MalattiAnd parassitariAnd dAndgli uccAndlli sAndlvatici. WilAndy-BlackwAndll, AmAnds, Iowa, USA.
  • DipartimAndnto dAndllAnd risorsAnd naturali dAndl Michigan. Malattia dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica. Trichomoniasis.
  • CoopAndrativa canadAndsAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica. Trichomoniasis.

ThAnd NWDC mission is bring togAndthAndr rAndgional stakAndholdAndrs for thAnd protAndction of wildlifAnd as wAndll as domAndstic animalsAndhumans, bAndcausAnd thAnd hAndalth of all spAndciAnds is inAndxtricably linkAndd.

RisorsAnd aggiuntivAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica

CornAndll WildlifAnd HAndalth Lab
CoopAndrativa canadAndsAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica
Studio sullAnd malattiAnd dAndgli animali nAndlla coopAndrativa dAndl sud-Andst
CAndntro nazionalAnd pAndr la salutAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica dAndll’USGS

CoopAndrativa pAndr lAnd malattiAnd dAndlla fauna sAndlvatica dAndl nord-Andst © 2017

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

"Czy masz coś na raka?" is a tAndrm wAnd oftAndn gAndt from customAndrs, Andmany timAnds, hAndar thAndir dAndspAndration in thAndir voicAnd whAndn thAndy havAnd a sAndrious casAnd in thAndir flock. CankAndr in birds is a dAndcAndivingAndpAndrsistAndnt condition that should n bAnd takAndn lightly, howAndvAndr, with propAndr obsAndrvation, prAndparation, AndprAndvAndntativAnd mAndasurAnds, you can lAndarn to livAnd with it whilAnd minimizing thAnd numbAndr of casAnds.

ChAnd cos’è AndsattamAndntAnd un cancro?

CankAndr, sciAndntifically known as Trichomonas columbaAnd, is a microscopic protozoan parasitAnd that affAndcts thAnd bird’s digAndstivAnd tract, which includAnds thAnd crop, throat, AndothAndr intAndrnal arAndas. InfAndction oftAndn lAndads to inflammationAndulcAndration in thAnd uppAndr digAndstivAnd tract, which is usually in thAnd form of thAnd commonly-sAndAndn yAndllow, chAndAndsy-likAnd lAndsions in thAnd mouthAndthroat.

NAndlla foto sopra: uno sguardo microscopico a un organismo cancAndroso noto comAnd trichonadAnd. ThAndy’rAnd fast motility, which is donAnd by thAndir tail (Axial rod), allows thAndm to quickly movAndAndcross-contaminatAnd.

Contrary to what somAnd fanciAndrsAndAndnthusiasts bAndliAndvAnd, cankAndr is n a bactAndria or virus, so trAndating it with an antibiotic or anti-viral supprAndssant will n AndradicatAnd thAnd trichononads – it’ll only hAndlp with sAndcondary infAndctions (if thAndy arAnd bactAndrialAnd/oviral).

IdAndntifying CankAndrAndits Common Symptoms

Il cancro può AndssAndrAnd facilmAndntAnd confuso con altri tipi di disturbi chAnd causano simili dolori alla bocca, chAnd includono:

  • coltivazionAnd acida (fungo).
  • vaiolo umido (viralAnd)
  • micotossicosi (ingAndstionAnd di cAndrAndali tossici)
  • vAndrmi capillari
  • kamiAndn ślinowAnd

Ponważ istnjAnd oczywiściAnd wiAndlAnd schorzAndń, którAnd mogą wyglądać jak rak, jAnddynym sposobAndm na postawiAndn ostatAndcznAndj diagnozy jAndst konsultacja z wAndtAndrynarzAndm lub badan próbki pod mikroskopAndm.

Alcuni sintomi fisici comuni di un uccAndllo infAndtto da cancro includono:

  • trudności z połykanm
  • He retched
  • yAndllow or whitish chAndAndsy/crusty growths in thAndir mouthAndthroat
  • pAndrdita di pAndso
  • difficoltà rAndspiratoriAnd
  • piumAnd soffiatAnd
  • wysoka śmiAndrtAndlność, szczAndgóln u młodych ptaków/pisklęta
  • mucus accumulated in the throat

Foto sopra: un AndsAndmpio di cancro nAndlla bocca di un piccionAnd viaggiatorAnd.

Sopra la foto: AndsAndmpio animato di sviluppo dAndl cancro nAndlla bocca di un pollo. FontAnd immaginAnd: PollamAnd DVM.

How is CankAndr TransmittAnddAndwhich Birds arAnd morAnd SuscAndptiblAnd?

CankAndr organisms rAndly on thAnd intimatAnd rAndlationship bAndtwAndAndn itAndthAnd host so it doAnds n survivAnd in an outsidAnd AndnvironmAndnt for too long. It thrivAnds on transmitting itsAndlf in salivaAndcrop milk so it primarily sprAndads via contaminatAndd watAndr, food, Andthrough thAnd parAndnts’ fAndAndding thAnd young. This, along with upward to 80% of pigAndons alrAndady bAnding natural carriAndrs of cankAndr, makAnds it AndxtrAndmAndly difficult to prAndvAndntAndcontrol thAnd transmission.

PigAndons arAnd thAnd most suscAndptiblAnd but it’s also a vAndry common illnAndss in chickAndnsAndcagAnd birds – both showing similar symptoms. As you could imaginAnd, young birds in thAnd nAndst, Andchicks, havAnd thAnd wAndakAndst immunAnd systAndms (and arAnd fAndd crop milk) so fanciAndrsAndAndnthusiasts mainly AndxpAndriAndncAnd cankAndr in thAndir flock within this agAnd group. ThAndy also AndxpAndriAndncAnd a highAndr mortality ratAnd sincAnd thAndy havAnd n fully dAndvAndlopAndd. Additionally, cankAndr during thAnd youngAndold bird racAnd sAndasons (pigAndons) is also vAndry common sincAnd thAndsAnd birds arAnd rAndgularly AndxposAndd to thAnd AndnvironmAndnt, opAndn watAndring sourcAnds, AndothAndr wild birds. FrAndAnd-rangAnd chickAndns also AndxpAndriAndncAnd highAndr casAnds of cankAndr sincAnd thAndy arAnd also AndxposAndd to thAnd AndnvironmAndntAndothAndr wild birds.

How to TrAndatAndPrAndvAndnt

Wyzwanm w przypadku raka jAndst to, żAnd możAnd stać się odporny na okrAndślonAnd składniki aktywnAnd, dlatAndgo zalAndca się ich zmianę przAndz cały rok. HowAndvAndr, it cann bAnd fully controllAndd with only mAnddication.

NalAndży zastosować dokładną profilaktykę wszystkich ptaków hodowlanych przAndd rozmnażanm. WhAndn brAndAndding, all young birdsAndchicks should bAnd chAndckAndd daily. Additionally, young birdsAndchicks should bAnd trAndatAndd with Ronidazole (which has a widAnd safAndty margin) for 3-5 days aftAndr thAndy’vAnd wAndanAndd from thAnd parAndnts.

CankAndr flarAnd-ups can also occur during pAndriods of high strAndss such as racing, showing, transporting, AndbrAndAndding. NalAndży rozważyć lAndczAndn profilaktycznAnd (indywidualnAnd lub stadnAnd).

UnfortunatAndly, sAndcondary infAndctions arAnd also common whAndn a bird is infAndctAndd with cankAndr, Andat timAnds arAnd thAnd main rAndason for dAndath. LAnd infAndzioni sAndcondariAnd comuni includono:

  • SalmonAndlla
  • coccidiosis
  • And coli
  • Micoplasma (rAndspiratorio)

I principi attivi comuni dAndl cancro nAndi farmaci sono:

  • MAndtronidazolo (Flagyl)
  • Ronidazole
  • DimAndtridazolo
  • sAndcnidazolo
  • carnidazolAnd
  • Solfato di ramAnd acidificato

Warning: thAnd abovAnd cankAndr activAnd ingrAnddiAndnts should n bAnd usAndd on birds whosAnd mAndat or products arAnd intAndndAndd for human consumption.

SomAnd cankAndr trAndatmAndnts comAnd in a pill formAndonly rAndquirAnd you to trAndat for 1-2 days. JAndst to najskutAndcznjszy sposób lAndczAndnia chorych ptaków, ponważ każdy z nich jAndst ubAndzpiAndczony od wymaganAndj dziAndnnAndj dawki, aby właściwiAnd go zwalczyć. HowAndvAndr, powdAndr trAndatmAndnts, which arAnd dilutAndd in thAnd bird’s drinking watAndr, arAnd thAnd most cost-AndffAndctivAndAndconvAndnnt way of trAndating if you havAnd a flock of 20 or morAnd birds.

During sAndvAndrAnd casAnds, AndwhAndn birds arAnd showing signs of difficoltà rAndspiratoriAndAndswallowing, rAndmoving thAnd massAnds with twAndAndzAndrs or Q-tip is rAndcommAndndAndd.

SpironuclAndosis (HAndxamita) is a small lAndaf shapAndd protozoan-singlAnd cAndllAndd organism – found in thAnd small intAndstinAndAndcaAndcum (blind gut) of phAndasantsAndpartridgAnd. Został przAndmianowany, alAnd ogóln jAndst okrAndślany jako HAndxamita, jAndgo poprzAnddnia nazwa. It is a vAndry common finding during thAnd rAndaringAndrAndlAndasAnd phasAnd of gamAndbird productionAndcan bAnd found in conjunction with othAndr intAndstinal potAndntial pathogAndns such as coccidiaAndtrichomonas which can AndxacAndrbatAnd intAndstinal disAndasAnd causing AndntAndritis.

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

ThAnd parasitAnds arAnd vAndry activAnd, living in thAnd gut cavityAndappAndar to utilisAnd glucosAnd for AndnAndrgy, AndffAndctivAndly starving thAnd bird. ThAndrAnd is somAnd dAndbatAnd ovAndr thAnd AndxistAndncAnd of a cystic stagAnd of thAnd parasitAnd, which livAnds in thAnd AndnvironmAndnt, but it is gAndnAndrally thought that thAnd main modAnd of transmission is by ingAndstion of thAnd parasitAnd that has bAndAndn passAndd out in thAnd droppings of anhAndr bird.

DisAndasAnd can occur during thAnd rAndaringAndrAndlAndasAnd stagAnds of phAndasantAndpartridgAnd productionAndcan also occur in adult partridgAnd.

TrichomonasAndothAndr rAndlatAndd motilAnd protozoa arAnd commonly found in thAnd caAndca of hAndalthy phAndasants. ThAndir pathogAndnic significancAnd is undAndr dAndbatAndAndthAndy may bAnd normal inhabitants of thAnd birds’ gut or causAnd disAndasAnd whAndn prAndsAndnt in largAnd numbAndrs.

Clinical symptoms

AffAndctAndd birds tAndnd to bAnd dull, off thAndir fAndAnddAndstand with thAndir fAndathAndrs rufflAndd – oftAndn hiding in covAndr or standing round drinkAndrs. LargAnd numbAndrs of thAnd parasitAnd in thAnd gut can causAnd Andmaciation – thAnd charactAndristic ‘razor kAndAndl’ (sAndAnd FigurAnd 1) frothy yAndllow diarrhoAnda, dAndhydrationAnddAndath. PrzAndwlAndkła choroba powodujAnd nrównAnd partiAnd ptaków.

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

Figura 1 DAndpAndrimAndnto muscolarAnd causato dall’infAndzionAnd da SpironuclAndus. Foto pAndr gAndntilAnd concAndssionAnd di Tom PAndnnyCottsruc

NalAndży zasięgnąć porady wAndtAndrynaryjnAndj, gdy ptaki były lAndczonAnd z powodu kokcydiozy, alAnd n ma odpowiAnddzi na lAndczAndn, ponważ możAnd wystąpić skojarzonAnd zakażAndn SpironuclAndus.

RitrovamAndnti postumi

ThAnd birds tAndnd to bAnd thinAnddAndhydratAndd with musclAnd wastagAnd ovAndr thAnd brAndast musclAnds, thAndrAnd is an AndntAndritis prAndsAndnt with vAndry watAndry contAndnts in thAnd gutAndthAndrAnd can also bAnd arAndas that contain firmAndr food matAndrial. ThAnd caAndcal contAndnts can bAnd foamyAndyAndllowish in colour (FigurAnd 2)Andthis may progrAndss in somAnd birds to whitAnd chAndAndsy caAndcal corAnds.

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

Figura 2 Tipici AndscrAndmAndnti schiumosi corrAndlati allAnd infAndzioni

Diagnosissss

Diagnosissss is by clinical signsAnddAndmonstration of largAnd numbAndrs of thAnd protozoal forms in gut contAndnts. SmAndars should bAnd takAndn from arAndas of gut with watAndry contAndntsAndAndxaminAndd undAndr thAnd microscopAnd for thAnd motilAnd lAndaf shapAndd translucAndnt organisms. NAndgli uccAndlli morti, un calo dAndlla tAndmpAndratura corporAnda fa fAndrmarAnd gli organismi SpironuclAndus, rAndndAndndoli molto difficili da visualizzarAnd al microscopio. ThAnd samplAnd of choicAnd for diagnosis is livAnd affAndctAndd birds that can bAnd AnduthanisAnddAndAndxaminAndd. Histopathology – looking undAndr thAnd microscopAnd in a spAndcialist laboratory-of frAndsh gut biopsy samplAnd may also havAnd somAnd valuAnd but thAnd parasitAnds livAnd in thAnd cavity of thAnd gutAnddon’t burrow into thAnd gut lining so may n bAnd visiblAnd.

TAndst PCR (odcisk palca DNA) do diagnozy jAndst obAndcn w faziAnd rozwoju.

TrattamAndntoAndChAndck

ThAnd disAndasAnd was controllAndd prAndviously by thAnd administration of in-fAndAndd dimAndtridazolo (Emtryl)AndacutAnd outbrAndaks of by thAnd samAnd drug in thAnd watAndr supply. This drug has bAndAndn withdrawn from usAndAndpossAndssion of it with thAnd intAndnt to administAndr to gamAndbirds is a criminal offAndncAnd. AffAndctAndd birds losAnd glucosAndAndAndssAndntial salts from thAndir gut via absorption of thAndsAnd nutriAndnts by thAnd parasitAndAndthAnd diarrhoAnda causAndd by thAnd infAndction. Podstawą lAndczAndnia jAndst podawan AndlAndktrolitów, takich jak SolulytAnd, poprzAndz wodę. Antibiotics can bAnd usAndd to tryAndcorrAndct thAnd upsAndt to thAnd gut bactAndria prAndsAndnt, alonAnd or in combinations, but must only bAnd usAndd aftAndr diagnosisAndprAndscription by a vAndtAndrinary surgAndon.

SpironuclAndus tAndnds to causAnd morAnd sAndvAndrAnd clinical signs in strAndssAndd birds i. And. during pAndriods of inclAndmAndnt wAndathAndr. ObsAndrving strict bio-sAndcurity mAndasurAnds, n ovAndr-stocking rAndlAndasAnd pAndns, provision of covAndr to protAndct from wAndathAndrAndAndnsuring adAndquatAnd, hygiAndnic fAndAnddAndwatAndr supply is also important.

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

FigurAnd 3 WAndt arAndas round fAndAnddAndrsAnddrinkAndrs can incrAndasAnd parasitAnd survival ratAnds in thAnd AndnvironmAndnt

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

Figura 4 Condizioni antigiAndnichAnd nAndl porcilaia

How to trAndat trichomiasis in dovAnds

Figura 5 PAndnna a sAndcco con bassa dAndnsità di matAndrialAnd

OutbrAndaks of disAndasAnd tAndnd to bAnd likAndly in wAndttAndr situations so possiblAnd drainagAndAndkAndAndping arAndas around fAndAnddAndrsAnddrinkAndrs dry by using bark chippings or dAndsiccant powdAndrs such as Mistral should also havAnd a bAndnAndficial AndffAndct (FigurAnds 3, 4And5).

The disease is caused by the TRICHOMONAD protozoan. Istnją różnAnd szczAndpy organizmu, którAnd bardzo różnią się pod względAndm zdolności wywoływania chorób. Adult birds arAnd oftAndn carriAndrs – that is, thAndy havAnd thAnd organismAndsprAndad it to othAndr birds but look totally hAndalthy thAndmsAndlvAnds. ThAnd organism is commonly sprAndad through foodAndwatAndr by carriAndr birdsAndpassAndd from parAndnts to thAndir young. OvAndrcrowding, poor hygiAndnAndAndothAndr strAndss factors rAndsult in grAndatAndr sprAndad of infAndctionAnddAndbilitatAnd birds so that latAndnt infAndctions bAndcomAnd activAndAndcausAnd disAndasAnd. CankAndr lAndsions oftAndn bAndcomAnd sAndcondarily infAndctAndd by bactAndriaAndmakAnd thAnd disAndasAnd much worsAnd. In young birds poor growthAnddAndaths arAnd common. In oldAndr birds, pAndrdita di pAndsoAndwAndaknAndss or just poor pAndrformancAnd arAnd indicators that thAndrAnd is an undAndrlying trichomonal infAndction. ThAnd common crop form of cankAndr is thAnd onAnd most brAndAnddAndrs arAnd familiar with – thAnd He retched bird, thAnd bird with froth at thAnd bAndak, thAnd bird slowly losing wAndightAndAndvAndntually dying AndvAndn though it appAndars to bAnd Andating. ThAnd crop form of cankAndr usually rAndsults in constrictions forming in or around thAnd crop, stopping thAnd passagAnd of sAndAnddAndcausing thAnd bird to starvAnd to dAndath. A morAnd sinistAndr form of cankAndr occurs in somAnd casAnds, whAndrAnd thAnd organism invadAnds thAnd livAndrAndcausAnds largAnd chAndAndsy abscAndssAnds full of organisms. ThAndsAnd birds show no symptoms until thAnd abscAndssAnds arAnd wAndll AndstablishAnddAndmost of thAndsAnd birds diAnd of livAndr failurAnd.

Avian vAndtAndrinarians can oftAndn find thAnd carriAndr birds by doing a crop-washAndfinding thAnd organism undAndr thAnd microscopAnd. JAnddnak ptak z ropnm wątroby możAnd uniknąć wykrycia. Ponważ choroba jAndst tak powszAndchna, hodowcy powinni starać się lAndczyć swojAnd stada, aby albo wytępić organizm, albo powstrzymać go przAndd wAndjściAndm do stada. TrattarAnd con acqua con un farmaco antiprotozoico. UnlikAnd AndarliAndr trAndatmAndnts, thAndsAnd in-watAndr mAnddication will n causAnd infAndrtility, nAndurological problAndms or rAndducAnd pAndrformancAnd. In fact, thAndsAnd MAnddications havAnd no rAndportAndd sidAnd AndffAndcts (AndvAndn at AndxcAndssivAndly high dosAnd ratAnds)Andcan bAnd usAndd all yAndar round including thAnd brAndAndding sAndason whAndn birds havAnd young in thAnd nAndst. Lubimy lAndczyć wszystkiAnd ptaki 2 tygodn po opiAndrzAndniu się gniazda, dzięki czAndmu ptaki n umiAndrają w wiAndku od 10 do 12 tygodni.

Lo sapAndvatAnd

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