How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

Methods of using the two MAP kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors, PD98059 and U0126, for the prevention and treatment of polyomavirus infection are available for licensing and commercial development. Reduction of viral protein expression after treatment with MEK inhibitors has been demonstrated for two polyomavirus species, the JC virus (JCV) and the BK virus (BKV). It is believed that these MEK inhibitors may also be effective against other polyomavirus species in which TGF-beta expression is increased.

JCV is responsible for the demyelination of the central nervous system, which is observed in cases of promyelocytic leukemia. PML is most commonly seen in patients with HIV / AIDS, but is also a contributing factor in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and connective tissue disease, as well as those receiving immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases or preventing transplant rejection .

BKV is associated with the fatal syndromes of viruria and viraemia, uterine ulcers and stenosis, and haemorrhagic cystitis. BKV also causes polyomavirus nephropathy in 1-10% of all kidney transplant patients.

There are currently no effective antiviral agents available for the treatment of these opportunistic infections. In all cases observed, activation of JCV and BKV in immunocompromised patients led to death.

Development phase:
In vitro data is now available and the inventors are actively developing the technology.

Veerasamy Ravichandran (NINDS) ➽ other inventions.

Intellectual property:
US Application No. 60 / 908.950

Publications:
V Ravichandran, PN Jensen, ED Major. MEK1 / 2 inhibitors block JC virus multiplication stimulated by basal and transforming growth factor 1beta1. J. Virol. June 2007; 81 (12): 6412-6418. Epub 2007 Apr 4, doi: 10.1128 / JVI.02658-06. PubMed abs

Collaboration possibilities:

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke seeks claims regarding the ability or interest of collaborative research stakeholders to further develop, evaluate or commercialize the treatment and prevention of polyomavirus infection in immunocompromised patients. Please contact Dr. Melissa Maderia at maderiam @ mail. NIH. gov for more information.

DTT reference number:E-101-2007-0
Updated: June 14, 2010

How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

Polyomavirus is a lethal infection that affects many parts of the bird’s body and organs at the same time. This infection affects cage birds, particularly parrots. Young birds from infants to juveniles (14-56 days of age) are the birds most at risk and are usually fatal. Although this has not been proven, adult birds are believed to produce some immunity to the polyomavirus.

Symptoms and types

From the moment a bird becomes infected, symptoms appear after about 10-14 days. However, the bird may or may not show signs of polyomavirus infection. If your bird develops symptoms, its death may be imminent, usually within a day or two. As the infection reduces the bird’s immunity, it can be susceptible to other viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites, which can lead to secondary infections and death.

Polyomavirus infected birds may exhibit symptoms including:

  • swollen (distended) abdomen.
  • Loss of appetite
  • regurgitation
  • He retched
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration
  • Weight loss
  • Depression
  • Anomalies of the feathers
  • Excessive urination
  • Respiratory difficulties
  • Bleeding (haemorrhage) under the skin
  • Apathy
  • Shock
  • Paralysis

Causes

Polyomavirus is usually infected through direct contact with other infected birds. It is also transmitted by infected feces, dandruff, air, nests, incubators, feather dust, or from an infected parent who passes it on to a chick.

Treatment

There is no known treatment for polyomaviral disease.

Prevention

By following strict hygiene measures, such as disinfecting nests, cages, incubators, or utensils, you can ensure that your bird does not become infected with the polioma virus. However, the virus is resistant to most disinfectants; instead it uses oxidants, such as a chlorine beach. Anche le voliere e i negozi di animali dovrebbero controllare regolarmente la presenza del virus. And new birds should be quarantined to make sure they don’t transmit the disease.

Vaccinations are available but their effectiveness has not yet been proven. The vaccine is given to young birds in a double dose. The first dose is given at four weeks of age and the second dose at six to eight weeks of age.

Adult birds also receive a double dose of the vaccine; the second dose given approximately two to four weeks after the first. Thereafter, a booster dose of the vaccine is required annually.

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How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

Kaiks have been called clowns of the bird world for good reason – the clown is a very fitting metaphor for this high-energy, medium-sized mischief maker. You haven’t seen playful until you’ve seen a caique in action.

  • Kaiks like to play on the back and an excited gulet might jump
  • Two species of canoes are commonly kept as pets: the black-headed canine(Pionites melanocephala)and white-bellied kaik(Pionites leucogaster)
  • Diet & Nutrition: Parrot food

How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrotsWell known as the pet bird clown, kaiki are loved by bird lovers for their sociable nature and their ability to make people laugh with their playful antics. The proper way to pronounce caique is “kai-eke” — don’t ask for a “cake” at the bird shop, or they might point you to the nearest bakery!

Jeśli afrykańska Parot szara jest intelektualistą ptasiej społeczności, a ara jest popisem, to kaik jest klaunem. Kaiks have been called clowns more often than Barnum and Bailey have held three-ring shows, and for good reason the clown is a very fitting metaphor for this mid-sized mischief maker.

Two species of canoes are commonly kept as pets: the black-headed canine(Pionites melanocephala)and white-bellied kaik(Pionites leucogaster). The yellow-legged kaik, a white-bellied subspecies, is also kept as a pet, although it is less common in the pet trade. The black-headedand white-bellied kaikhave a similar appearance, with a few obvious distinctions. Dba mają około 9 do 10 cali długości, a ich kompozycja kolorystyczna jest stosunkowo prosta, z „sekcjami” ptaka w kolorze zielonym, pomarańczowym, żółtym i białym.

How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrotsThe black-headed kaik obviously has a black head and black beak, while the white-headed kaik has, as you may have guessed, a white belly (like the black-headed one, by the way), a horn-colored beak and an orange head. and bright yellow. The Kaik is a stocky bird, surprisingly heavy for its size, as most new owners indicate.

Region of origin / natural habitat

How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

Kaiks are native to South America.

Care & Feeding

Although the kaik is a medium-sized bird, it needs a large environment. This energetic bird will suffer greatly from being locked up in a small cage. Think about building a small aviary if you can, or at least providing your kaik with the largest housing you can afford. Make sure that the bar-spacing is appropriate for a bird of its size and that there’s a grating on the bottom of the cage. This playful little bird will quickly discover his cage’s weak spots, so make sure your cage has quality construction like the stainless steel one.

Come con la maggior parte dei parrots, i kaiki prosperano con una dieta a base di pellet integrata con frutta e verdura fresca. Nutritious berries are a particularly good food for kaikas because they offer fun foraging and balanced nutrition.

How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

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Co to jest Parot Parot (gorączka papugi)?

Ringworm is a zoonosis that can affect many bird species around the world. Ringworm is caused by the body of Chlamydophila psittaci, a species of bacteria known as the matrix of the virus and bacteria. Le zoonosi come la febbre del Parot sono malattie infettive complesse che possono essere trasmesse da animale a persona; possono essere causati da virus, batteri (come nella febbre dei parrots), parassiti o funghi.

Nella febbre dei parrots, la clamidia viene solitamente trasmessa da parrots infetti, una specie di uccelli tra cui parrots, are, ninfe e parrotsni (comunemente noti come “ondulati”) e viene trasmessa all’uomo attraverso goccioline respiratorie contaminate, escrezione batterica, scarico dal naso, feci e altri vettori infettivi. Per coloro che lavorano a stretto contact con gli uccelli o hanno una stretta interazione con i loro uccelli da compagnia, ogni caso di febbre da Parot è spesso associato all’inalazione di polvere da escrementi o piume. Sebbene la malattia sia chiamata “in loro onore”, la febbre dei parrots non si limita ai parrots e ai parrots. Other infected birds, such as turkeys, pigeons, chickens, gulls, and wild birds, have been identified as avian chlamydia transmitters.

Strains of the chlamydial organism lie dormant or “quiescent” in many birds, and most owners will not see signs or symptoms of the bacterium throughout the bird’s lifetime. Tuttavia, alcuni uccelli sviluppano la febbre da Parot quando i batteri vengono attivati ​​da fattori di stress dello stile di vita. Sebbene questa teoria non possa essere dimostrata, casi di febbre da Parot sono stati osservati in modo sproporzionato negli uccelli che sono stati recentemente trasportati da o verso strutture di imbarco, competizioni e spettacoli o portati in una nuova casa.

Birds interacting with new birds can spread the bacteria. Anche i cambiamenti nella dieta e l’eccessiva riproduzione sono associati allo sviluppo improvviso dei sintomi clinici della febbre del Parot. The bird may stop eating suddenly and appear confused. Dznaki depresji mogą obejmować zaprzestanie socjalizacji i więcej czasu spędzonego z głową schowaną pod skrzydło. Dbjawy mogą obejmować biegunkę oraz wydzielinę z oczu i nosa. Unfortunately, although this is very rare, some birds suffer sudden death.

La psittacosi (nota anche come febbre da Parot, ornitosi o clamidiosi aviaria) è una zoonosi infettiva che può diffondersi dagli uccelli all’uomo.

Dbjawy papugi papugi (gorączka papugi) u ptaków

Gli uccelli con febbre da Parot mostrano spesso sintomi simil-influenzali generalizzati. The bird must be evaluated by a veterinarian as another disease may be involved.

  • No appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Respiratory difficulties
  • Depression
  • Twisting the head
  • Green watery excrement / diarrhea
  • Discharge from the eyes and nose
  • Unexpected death

Causes of Micosi del Parot (febbre del Parot) in Birds

Psittacosis develops due to the presence of the organism C. psittaci. The bacterium can be dormant in the bird and appears only during a stressful event. Parent birds can pass the organism to their young and birds can pass the bacterial organism to each other.

Diagnostica dei parrots (febbre dei parrots) negli uccelli

Some birds will have severe symptoms while others will have mild flu-like symptoms. È difficile diagnosticare la febbre da Parot a causa della natura aspecifica della malattia. Examination, X-rays, and blood tests are important. The most indicative symptoms are profuse discharge from the eyes and nose and refusal to eat or drink. In this case, the bird becomes anorexic and dehydrated and is at risk of sudden death.

I parrots più grandi mostreranno sintomi respiratori avversi. Se l’uccello muore, è importante sottoporlo al test in caso di febbre da Parot positiva. Family members should see a doctor.

Treatment of Micosi del Parot (febbre del Parot) in Birds

Suspicious birds are usually treated with antibiotics for 30-45 days. During this time, the bird must not be exposed to stress and must continue a veterinarian-approved diet. Ask your vet how long a bird should be kept away from other birds and people. Sebbene i parrots possano diffondersi dagli uccelli all’uomo, è un evento raro. Dsoby z obniżoną odpornością lub osoby starsze są bardziej narażone na zakażenie, które zwykle objawia się objawami grypy. Therefore, careful handling of a sick bird is essential to avoid the spread of the infection. If you notice any of these symptoms in your bird, see a doctor right away.

Ddzyskiwanie papugi (gorączka papugi) u ptaków

If your bird has been diagnosed, your family should be examined by a doctor. C. psittaci infection results from inhalation of mucus or respiratory excrement. Evitare il contact con la bocca con l’uccello. Some people have died from this disease, so continued care is as important to a person as it is to a bird.

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How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrots

As a bird owner, it is important to be aware of common bird diseases and ailments that can affect your precious pet. Detecting the disease early is key to successfully treating pet birds, so it’s important to understand some of the more common diseases that affect birds in captivity.

If you notice your bird exhibiting any of these signs of illness or any other unusual behavior, see a qualified veterinarian as soon as possible.

Provencal dilatation disease (PDD)

Provencal dilatation disease (PDD) jest jednym z najbardziej zakłócających ptasich schorzeń. The disease affects the nerves that supply the bird’s digestive tract, although it can also affect the nerves that supply other organs.

La PDD è anche conosciuta come Sindrome da deperimento dell’Macaw e Sindrome da deperimento del Parot perché è più comunemente diagnosticata in Macaws, parrots grigi africani, parrots amazzonici, cacatua e conuri.

Dbjawy PDD to utrata masy ciała, wymioty, zmiany w ptasich odchodach i obrzęk wola, czyli mięśniówki w pobliżu gardła. However, no signs or symptoms can distinguish PPD. Some birds may not show any symptoms of the disease until they get sick.

Treatment will often be nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and the bird may have to be put on a special diet. However, there is no cure for this disease, so these treatments are designed to reduce pain for the rest of the bird’s life.

Micosi del Parot (febbre del Parot)

La psittacosi o “febbre da Parot” è una forma di batterio Chlamydia che può colpire tutti i becchi. The disease is highly contagious and can be transmitted from birds to other animals as well as to humans.

Dbjawy psittakozy nie są specyficzne, ale obejmują trudności w oddychaniu, infekcje oczu i stany zapalne, a także luźne, wodniste odchody i ogólny letarg. Treatment is most often an antibiotic, tetracycline, which can be given orally or through injections. However, birds taking tetracycline cannot have calcium due to its effects on the drug.

Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD)

La PBFD è una malattia grave che può colpire tutti i membri della famiglia dei parrots e viene chiamata “AIDS aviario” date le somiglianze tra le malattie. Although most affected birds are under the age of two, PBFD can affect birds of any age.

Dbjawy PBFD obejmują utratę piór, nieprawidłowy rozwój piór, brak puchu (łupież) oraz narośla, zmiany chorobowe i nieprawidłowości dzioba. If the bird is showing symptoms, the vet may perform a skin and / or feather biopsy.

Dbecnie nie ma leczenia PBFD, więc weterynarz zaleci leczenie wspomagające, które obejmuje leczenie bólu.

Polyomavirus

Polyomavirus is a disorder that affects caged birds, particularly parrots. I neonati e i giovani sono i più a rischio e la malattia è generalmente fatale.

Dbjawy poliomawirusa obejmują utratę apetytu, powiększenie brzucha, paraliż i biegunkę. Some birds may show no outward symptoms at all, but they are carriers of the virus and can spread it in stressful situations, posing the risk of contaminating other birds in the home.

There is no known treatment for polyomavirus. This disease can progress rapidly and has a high mortality rate.

White

White, or Candidiasis, is a fungal infection that can affect the digestive tract of all species of birds. The disease involves an overgrowth of yeast that normally occurs in the digestive system of birds.

Common symptoms of White infections include white lesions in and around the mouth and throat, vomiting, appetite loss, and a crop that is slow to empty. The bird may appear lethargic.

Most White infections are successfully treated using antifungal medications. White often develops secondary to another disease, so the bird should be examined and treated for all potential problems by a vet.

Did you know

More interesting facts

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  • JEDYNE ptaki, które potrafią latać DD TYŁU: Kolibry
  • La più grande specie di Parot volante è: L’Macaw Giacinto
  • Il Parot selvatico più raro del mondo: l’Macaw di Spix
  • parrots, które budują „domki dla ptaków” : Thekwakierka Parot
  • The most common hawk in North America
  • The Eurasian eagle owl is the largest owl in the world
  • Record holder for the expression of most words: commonBudgie(over 1700 words)

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How to treat polyomavirus in caique parrotsSpesso ci viene chiesto di vaccinare i nostri parrots. And the answer is maybe. We have limited vaccines and some have come and gone – most have disappeared. The only vaccine available is the polyomavirus vaccine. So what should we do?

Polyomavirus at one time was killing our parrots — mostly hand-reared chicks and sometimes adults, and often in large numbers. Nei parrotsni, la malattia ha colpito i pulcini di età compresa tra 10 e 25 giorni, causando gravi decessi. I parrots più grandi sono anche suscettibili all’infezione da poliomavirus aviario (APV), ma di solito non mostrano segni di malattia. Some species are highly susceptible to disease, particularly kaika, while others rarely, if ever, develop symptoms of disease.

APV disease occurs in different species and ages. In conures, death usually occurs in birds younger than 6 weeks of age. Śmierć ary i papug Ecletto następuje w wieku około 8 tygodni lub młodszym. Most, perhaps all, of the lost chicks are manually fed when this happens. Infected chicks that are hand-fed appear healthy, show very few symptoms, and then suddenly die. Chicks kept in a nest and fed by their parents rarely get sick; this fortunate result is due to the transfer of the secretory antibody. When signs appear, they precede death for up to 24 hours. Attentive owners may notice delayed emptying of the crop, weakness, generalized paleness, or bruising under the skin in the last few hours before death. Another rare observation is the yellow discoloration of urates. Autopsy findings usually include generalized pallor with subcutaneous and subserial hemorrhages and enlargement of the spleen and liver. Less commonly, there may be ascites with abdominal fluid and / or pericardial effusion around the heart.

Infection versus disease

It has become obvious that infection and disease are not synonymous, especially with this virus. Many birds can be infected with the virus, but adult birds rarely develop the disease. They develop sensitized B and T lymphocytes, antibodies and an immune response that prevents the onset of the disease and eliminates the viral infection. Those who display the disease often have reduced immunity. The exception is kaiki species where adult birds can develop the disease. The development of the disease depends on the species of the infected bird, the age of the infected bird, and whether the bird is immunosuppressed. Birds that are infected and do not develop the disease still have the virus replicating in their bodies and release it in their feces for some time. The time it takes for the spread of the virus to reoccur depends on the age of the bird at the time of infection and its species. Some hand-fed birds that have partial immunity will develop and recover from a temporary disease. These birds often retain the viral infection for a long time and are used to transmit the infection to naive individuals.

Birds that are infected but do not develop symptoms of the disease will become contagious and may begin to spread the virus through the cloaca and possibly the oral mucosa. Rarely, viraemia lasts for months. Faecal excretion lasts up to 16 weeks but is still much less in infected adult birds and older chicks.

Polyomavirus Vaccine

A commercial vaccine against polyomavirus is available. Some avian veterinarians recommend vaccination from age 21 and repeat vaccination within two weeks. Następnie postępują zgodnie z zaleceniem, że Parot powinna co roku otrzymywać szczepionkę. Some birds vaccinated with this vaccine will develop persistent swelling at the vaccination site, which is usually the subcutaneous tissue above the pectoral muscles of the tail. It will take weeks or months for these changes to completely reverse. There are other situations where these injection sites can lead to skin cancers. Un altro problema con il vaccino è che, da un punto di vista scientifico, la somministrazione del vaccino in uno studio non è stata titolata a parrots giovani che non erano stati esposti al virus prima. Multiple blood samples were taken, including 2 weeks after the second booster dose. None of the naive subjects developed detectable antibody titers. The antibody was detected in a one-year-old solar cone that survived the polyomavirus outbreak. This bird had detectable pre-vaccination titers that did not change over the course of the study. Poiché nessuno dei parrots ingenui ha sviluppato titoli anticorpali, non si sapeva se il vaccino potesse proteggerli se esposto al virus.

Per questi motivi altri veterinari aviari hanno scelto di non vaccinare i parrots contro il poliomavirus. Although there are other infectious diseases that affect our feathered companions and can cause severe damage, no effective vaccine has yet been developed to protect them from diseases caused by these organisms.

Importance of annual veterinary checks

But that does not mean that because we don’t have reliable vaccines for our parrots we should not take them to our avian veterinarians for yearly exams. All pet birds, as well as our cats and dogs, must be checked with an annual examination. Many pet birds can have low-grade infections, and if their immune systems are weakened, they can quickly develop severe symptoms of the disease. For this reason, many avian veterinarians perform Gram staining of the patient’s nasal cleft along with Gram staining in stool. This will help them determine if the bird has infections by trying to mask the signs of the disease.

Depending on the age and health of a particular bird patient, we may also take x-rays, measure blood pressure, perform ultrasounds of the heart, and / or draw blood for various tests. All of these processes, along with the review of the patient’s avian herd, are aimed at keeping him in the best possible health. We want everyone to lead long, healthy and fun lives!

PDLIDMAWIRUS
Saturday afternoon in April 2003 I was looking at my nests in my breeding room. I observed four dead chicks in a nest, which were approaching three weeks of age. In the second box I checked, I observed chicks that had lost their flight feathers and were missing their tail feathers. One of the chicks had blood on the tip of its wing. I had read about Polyomavirus or Budgerigar Fledgling Disease which is a member of the papovavirus family. Looking at my birds, I knew it wasn’t a French moult. The next day I contacted my local vet who advised me to submit one of the dead chicks for DNA testing.

The results were as expected, so I had to overcome this outbreak of Polyomavirus. I was now confronted with this very contagious disease and I must now learn about Polyomavirus to minimise its impact on my birds.

WHAT IS PDLIDMAWIRUS

Polyomavirus is a virus. It is considered to be one of the most important threats to caged birds around the world. The virus attracts young chicks from 5 days to 56 days of age. Many young chicks will die from this disease as there is no known treatment

TRANSMISSION

I understand that the virus can spread from bird to bird through feces, feather dust, aerosols, and feeding chicks. I was advised not to sell or display birds in my aviary for up to six months. The risk factor associated with Polyomarvisus is very real.

DBJAWY

The virus attacks young chicks in many ways. Anomalies of the feathers, haemorrhages under the skin, diarrhoea, swollen abdomen, loss of appetite. I have lost many birds with no clinical signs.

ZAPDBIEGANIE

I received Veterinarian advice that it was of little value using off the shelf disinfectants, as Polyomavirus is resistant to most disinfectants. I needed an industrial disinfectant to kill the virus. I managed to get hold of an industrial disinfectant which is used to clean public toilets. All the nests were sprayed together with the surface of the walls and the floor of the nesting room.

Secondly, I haven’t stopped breeding because my theory was that the birds were infected with the virus, so why not let nature take its course. By allowing this, I understand that adult chicks and birds would develop immunity to this virus. Yes, I have lost many birds, but many have become beautiful young birds that show no signs of the virus.

During the outbreak of Polyomavirus, I had the support of a very good friend, Ken Seagrott, from Inverell, N. S. W. Ken also advised me to use a level teaspoon of table salt in the nesting boxes and to replace the saw dust with kitty litter to keep the boxes dry. This is only added when the chicks are about 8 days old. Salt (sodium chloride) has many preservative properties and cat litter will absorb wet droppings.

HISTRDY DF THE DISEASE – by Professor David PHALEN, D. V. M.,Ph. D – Texas, A&M University, U. S. A

Avian Polyomavirus was first recognised in the early 1980’s in the south eastern and south central United States, and in Dntario, Canada in budgerigars. Si chiamava virus della malattia del parrotsno strisciante. It was found to be an enveloped DNA virus and was classified as a papovavirus based on its size, shape and DNA content. Il professor Phalen afferma inoltre che non tutti i parrotsni sembrano essere ugualmente suscettibili alle infezioni e alle malattie. It was also found the English budgerigars were rarely found to be infected with Polyomavirus although they were housed with other birds shedding the virus. – End of section by Professor David Phalen –

MDJE MYŚLI

Il virus del poliomire aviario è una malattia presente nei nostri parrotsni e parrots da molti anni. I have reached the conclusion that Polyomavirus has been diagnosed in many aviaries and breeding rooms as French Molt, which appears to be in the same feather disease group or formation as Polyomavirus. The virus can be a carrier of adult birds that show no external signs of the virus. Thanks to this, the Zloty Club, the shows and the buying and selling of birds become a real lottery. I do hope this article on Polyomavirus will help those in the hobby to understand this very real threat to our birds.

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