How to treat chlamydiosis in lories and lorikeets

Did you know

More interesting facts

  • What is the SMALLEST bird alive.
  • This bird can hibernate for months: Common Poor Will
  • The Oldest Parrot: Blue & Gold Macaw
  • THE ONLY birds that can fly BACK: hummingbirds
  • The largest flying parrot species is the hyacinth macaw
  • The rarest wild parrot in the world: the Spixa macaw
  • Pappagalli che costruiscono "casette per gli uccelli": Iquaker parrot
  • The most common hawk in North America
  • The Eurasian eagle owl is the largest owl in the world
  • Record holder for the expression of most words: commonBudgie(over 1700 words)

Avianweb LLC: | We respect your privacy:

Note: Any content posted on this site is commented or written as an opinion and is protected by freedom of expression. They are provided for educational and entertainment purposes only and do not in any way replace professional advice. Neither Avianweb / BeautyOfBirds nor any of their authors / editors assume any responsibility for the use or misuse of any published material. By using this website, you agree to these terms.

Congratulations on your new little bird! Your new companion will introduce you to a world of joy and chants that will brighten your day. We at Four Seasons Animal Hospital are here to help you not only enjoy this song, but also take care of your bird every day.

History

Lorikeets and Lori are some of the more colorful members of the parrot family. Native to Australia, Tasmania and the South Pacific islands, many species are critically endangered in the wild due to habitat loss or traps. Lorikeets are typically relatively small, slender birds 6 to 8 inches (15-20 cm) in length with long, tapering tails. Lories are slightly larger, stouter birds with short, square tails. Non tutte le specie rientrano facilmente in nessuna delle due categorie e i termini “lory” e “lorichetto” saranno usati in modo intercambiabile in questo opuscolo. While not the best speakers, many lorikeets can easily learn to pronounce certain words clearly. These birds also have excellent imitation skills. With proper care, lory and lorikeets can live 15 to 20 years.

Diet

Lory has a long, slender beak and a special long, narrow, brush-like tongue designed to extract nectar and pollen from flowers. Lorikeets in the wild have also been observed to eat insect secretions such as ‘lerp’ (a sugary substance secreted onto leaves and twigs), honeydew (secreted by aphids), as well as plant exudates like manna and sap, fruits and berries, flowers, leaves, buds, and small seeds (Note: Nuts and seeds are only a RARE part of the diet in the vast majority of lorikeet species). No wonder it’s hard to mimic Lora’s natural diet, however there are some close trade-offs:

• The basis of the diet should be high quality nectar. Many pet stores sell mixtures of powdered and liquid nectar. Small quantities of commercial dry mix may always be available with the liquid nectar provided fresh each day. It is important not to give too much nectar to birds in captivity. Nectar is high in calories, and some commercial products even contain dangerously high levels of vitamin A. Excess vitamin A can interfere with the color and normal condition of feathers, as well as beak pigmentation. High levels of vitamin A are also associated with health problems such as pancreatitis, poor fertility, reduced chick survival, and possibly iron storage disease (a common problem in lorikeets). Look for a nectar-based product that contains 6,000 IU / kg or less of vitamin A and less than 80 mg / kg of iron in your diet. Consult us for specific advice on brand and quantity of feed.

• Supplement your commercial diet daily with a large variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Restrict access to vitamin C-rich fruits, such as strawberries, cantaloupe, papaya, and citrus fruits, as high levels of dietary vitamin C increase the risk of iron storage disease.

• Birds can also be offered pesticide-free hibiscus flowers, rose petals and pipe cleaner flowers straight from the garden.

• Small seeds make up a very small part of the diet of most wild birds and should never be provided as an occasional snack for pet birds. Compared to other parrots, Lora’s stomach is weakly muscled and is not designed to break down this food easily.

Apartments

Purchase the largest cage possible. Lories are active, high-energy birds that need a lot of space for recreation and exercise. La dimensione minima della gabbia è “grande pappagallo”, che in genere è 36 “(0,9 m) x 36” x 60 “(1,5 m). Le gabbie devono essere costruite con filo robusto in grado di resistere alla masticazione e la distanza tra le barre non deve essere superiore a 0,75 pollici (1,9 cm) e 1 pollice (2,5 cm). Scegli una gabbia facile da pulire e fornisci robuste ciotole per il cibo come pesanti piatti in ceramica per evitare che il tuo camion si ribalti sui piatti. A causa della loro dieta speciale, i lora tendono a produrre escrementi grandi e umidi che hanno la tendenza a schizzare fuori dalla gabbia. Per mantenere l’area pulita, circonda la gabbia con tappeti di plastica o installa dei tappetini in vinile. Le gabbie con raccoglisemi o grembiuli per gabbie possono essere utilizzate anche per raccogliere e drenare gli escrementi sul pavimento della gabbia. Make sure dishes and toys are not placed beneath perches where they can become soiled by the bird’s droppings. L’intera gabbia, compresi tutti i toys, perches and utensils, should be washed thoroughly every 2 or 3 months. Stock up on these curious and playful birds with a range of sturdy toys. Provide swings, teether and puzzles containing a surprise to extract. Lory also likes to play with the foot toys they wrestle with on the cage floor. Hanging the toy on the perches will keep these active birds entertained as they play with the toy on their back. In fact, a cage with a grid is generally preferred as Lorises tend to spend a lot of time playing at the bottom of the cage. Finally, insect control is important. Il nettare tende ad attirare formiche, api e vespe e i loras possono essere punti o morsi intorno agli occhi.

Bathrooms

Routine baths or showers are essential for the well-being of feathers and skin. Once your bird gets used to being bathed, he can enjoy the real soak. Some birds like to play in the sink and even be kept under warm running water. Be careful not to get water in your eyes, nostrils or ears. Health When fed correctly, Lory and Lorikeets are generally robust and healthy birds.

• Nectar is rich in sugar and calories. This food meets the needs of wild lorikeets, but can quickly become obese in pet birds that are fed too much nectar or don’t have enough exercise.

• Lories are also at risk for iron storage disease, also known as hemochromatosis. Water consumption is higher per hour than other parrots. For this reason, these birds are sensitive to many medications and should only be treated under strict veterinary supervision.

Altman RB, Clubb SL, Dorrestein GM, Quesenberry K (eds). Bird Medicine and Surgery. WB Saunders; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: WB Saunders; 1997: 9, 607. Blanchard S. Companion Parrot Handbook. Alameda, CA: PBIC, Inc .; 1999: 109, 133. Koutsos EA, Matson KD, Klasing KC. Parrot nutrition: an overview. J Avian Med Surg 15 (4): 257-275, 2001. Lower R. Hancock House Encyclopedia of the Lories. Hancock House Pub Limited; 1998. McDonald D. Ecology of nutrition and nutrition of Australian lorikeets. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 12 (4): 195-204, 2003. Tully TN. Birds. In: Mitchell M, Tully TN (ed.). Exotic Animal Practice Manual. Louis, MO: Saunders; 2008. S. 267. Wissman M. Lori and lorikeets. Bird Talking May: 65-70,1997.

How to treat chlamydiosis in lories and lorikeets

How to treat chlamydiosis in lories and lorikeets

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What is chlamydiosis?

Chlamydiosis, also known as psittacosis, is a zoonosis that affects many different bird species. Infection caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci is very common in birds and pigeons, although nearly, if not all bird species are capable of contracting the infection. Some birds may be carriers but show no symptoms, while others may become mild to severely ill, either immediately after infection or under stress. Clinically affected psottacins can have a high mortality rate.

The disease can spread from birds to humans. The disease in humans is often associated with parrots, giving it the nickname “Parrot Fever”.

Chlamydiosis, a zoonosis that affects many bird species, occurs when a bird becomes infected with the bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci.

Symptoms of chlamydiosis in birds

The severity of your symptoms will depend on a number of factors:

  • The virulence of the organism
  • Infectious dose
  • Voltage
  • How susceptible bird species are to infections

Symptoms of an infection in your bird can include:

  • Discharge from the nose and eyes
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Sinusitis
  • Greenish / yellowish droppings
  • Fever
  • In action
  • The feathers appear ruffled
  • Weakness
  • No appetite
  • Weight loss

Types

Chlamydiosis can occur in birds and can be transmitted to humans. The pandemic of C. psittaci that infects humans occurred in 1929 in the United States and Europe. Fortunately, there has been an improvement in screening for the disease in birds, which has reduced the number of people infecting it. In the United States, there are 100-200 cases of human infection each year. The actual number of infections is believed to be much higher. Fortunately, the infection is easily treatable in people taking antibiotics, although it can be fatal if the infected person is not treated.

Causes of Chlamydia in Birds

Chlamydiosis is the result of an infection with a bacterial organism called Chlamydophila psittaci (also known as Chlamydia psittaci). Transmission usually occurs by inhalation of bacteria from dried stools. Birds considered vectors often carry bacteria. These birds don’t show symptoms of illness, however the organism is excreted in their droppings.

Diagnosis of chlamydiosis in birds

If you notice your bird looking sick, it’s best to take him to the vet. After a physical exam, your vet may decide to run tests to confirm a diagnosis in your bird. There are several tests that can help diagnose chlamydia; these tests will usually show if your bird is infected with the bacterium, even if it shows no signs of disease. The results will vary depending on which organs are most affected and the severity of the disease in your bird.

Increases in plasma bile acids, AST, LDH and uric acid can be observed. You can also check your bird’s feces for an organism, although this test will not be positive if your bird is not actively shedding bacteria at the time of sampling. Your veterinarian may choose to conduct a radiograph or laparoscopy to see if there is any enlargement of your bird’s liver or spleen or any thickening in his air sacs.

Treatment of chlamydia in birds

If your bird is diagnosed with a chlamydiosis infection, it will require antibiotic treatment. The recommended antibiotic is usually doxycycline, which can be given to the bird orally, by injection, or via water or feed. Since an antibiotic will only kill bacteria when they are active and multiplying and can be inactive for a certain period of time, the treatment will be given for at least 45 days to ensure its effectiveness.

Doxycycline often makes your bird more susceptible to yeast infections, so your vet may recommend taking anti-yeast medications during treatment. After taking doxycycline for 45 days, the vet will re-examine the bird to confirm that the treatment was successful. Once your bird has been treated, it will eventually stop shedding bacteria.

Recovery of chlamydiosis in birds

When treating your bird, steps need to be taken so that it does not infect humans with bacteria. It should be isolated during treatment and a person should be responsible for all cleaning, handling and treatment to reduce the number of people exposed. It is best to look after healthy birds before dealing with a bird with chlamydiosis.

A person who works with a bird and cleans up their surroundings should wear protective clothing that can be disinfected or thrown away. This includes gloves, goggles, shoes, and even a respirator. Your vet will instruct you on how to best treat your bird by minimizing exposure.

About a month after the 45-day treatment with antibiotics is completed, your bird’s droppings should be tested for the bacteria. This will determine if the treatment was successful. Your vet may recommend regular checkups to monitor your bird for bacteria. It is important to work closely with the veterinarian during the treatment process.

Embarking or exposing a bird to other birds can lead to the introduction of bacteria. Fortunately, the disease can be cured and, with proper treatment, the bird can be restored to its normal state of health.

*Wave! may take some of the sales or other considerations from the links on this page into consideration. Items are sold by seller, not Weights !.

POSSIBILITY OF CHLAMIDIC TREATMENT FOR COMPANION BIRDS

Veterinarians can choose from several treatments for avian chlamydia (AC). Although these protocols tend to be successful, knowledge is evolving and no treatment protocol can guarantee the safe treatment or complete elimination of Chlamydia psittaci infection in all avian species. Therefore, the treatment must be supervised by a licensed veterinarian.

Methods of treatment

There are several treatments for AC. The following are considered effective treatment methods:

Medicated feed should be the only food given to birds during treatment. The uptake of medicated feed by birds varies. Therefore, food consumption should be monitored. Acceptance can be increased by first adapting the birds to a similar, non-medicated diet. Treatment begins when the birds take medicated feed as the only food in their diet.

Diets based on medicinal mashed potatoes (i. e. greater than or equal to 1% chlortetracyclinecontaining less than 0.7% calcium) prepared with corn. *

White millet seeds, soaked in 0.5 mg CTC / g of seeds, can only be used for budgies and finches. It should be used for 30 days (Keet Life; Hartz Mountain is the sole producer.)

Granules and extruded products containing 1% CTC can be used. They are available and suitable for use with most pet birds. The size of the pellet should be adequate for the size of the bird to be treated. The treatment period is 45 days.

A special diet may be needed for birds belonging to the parrot subfamily known as Loriidae (i. e. Lori and Lorikeets), which naturally eat nectar and fruit.

Oral or parenteral treatments

The birds should be treated for a total of 45 days. There are three of these treatments.

Oral doxycycline. Doxycycline is the drug of choice for oral therapy; monohydrate preparations or calcium syrups can be used. Based on peer-reviewed studies, dosage recommendations are as follows: 40-50 mg / kg orally once daily for nymphs, Senegalese parrots and Amazonian blue-fronted and orange-winged parrots; and 25 mg / kg orally once daily for gray parrots, Goffin’s cockatoos, and blue-gold and green-winged macaws. Exact doses cannot be extrapolated to untested species; however, 25-30 mg / kg po once daily is the recommended starting dose for cockatoos and macaws, and 25-50 mg / kg po once daily is recommended for other psittacine species. If the bird returns the medicine, another treatment must be used.

Doxycycline for injection. Intramuscular (IM) injection into the pectoral muscle is often the simplest treatment option, but not all injectable formulations of doxycycline are suitable for intramuscular injection. All currently available preparations can cause irritation at the injection site. Vibrovenos (Pfizer Laboratories) is available in Europe and Canada and is effective when administered at doses of 75-100 mg / kg intramuscularly every 5-7 days for the first 4 weeks and then every 5 days for the duration of treatment. There are unconfirmed reports of the successful use of injectable pharmaceutical preparations containing doxycycline in the United States. However, there are insufficient data to identify exact dosing regimens. Hyclate for injection, which has been labeled for intravenous (IV) use in humans in the United States, is not suitable for intramuscular use because severe tissue reactions will occur at the injection site.

Oxytetracycline for injection. There is limited information on the use of injectable long-acting oxytetracycline (LA-200, Pfizer Laboratories). Current dosing recommendations are as follows: subcutaneous injection of 75 mg / kg every 3 days in Goffin’s cockatoo, blue-fronted, orange-winged Amazon parrots, and blue-gold macaw. This dose may be appropriate for other species but has not been tested. This product causes irritation at the injection site and is best suited to initiate treatment in sick or reluctant birds. Once the oxytetracycline treatment has stabilized, the birds should switch to another form of treatment to reduce muscle irritation caused by repeated injections of oxytetracycline.

Treatment protocols using fluoroquinolones, latest generation macrolides, injectable pharmaceutical compounds of doxycycline and feeds containing doxycycline are currently being studied. Information on these treatment protocols may be available in the scientific literature or from avian veterinarians.

Sources of medicinal feed

Medicated feed is available from several sources. The State National Association of Public Health Veterinarians can provide a list of providers. Fare richiesta all’Associazione presso RSA Tower, Ste. 1310, P. O. Box 303017, Montgomery, AL 36130-3017.

* The recommended recipe is 2 pounds of rice, 2 pounds of chicken feed and 3 liters of water, boiled for 15 minutes at full pressure in a pressure cooker. Add 10 mg of chlortetracycline / g of feed after cooling the cooked feed. Keep in mind that birds may find this diet unpleasant and may not accept it.

Reservation AllMMWR The HTML versions of the articles are electronic conversions from ASCII text to HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or formatting errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but reference is made to the electronic version of the PDF and / or the original MMWR a hard copy of the official text, figures and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; phone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.

** Send questions or messages related to formatting errors to mmwrq @ cdc. government.

Weekly morbidity and mortality report
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, MailStop E-90, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA

Did you know

More interesting facts

  • What is the SMALLEST bird alive.
  • This bird can hibernate for months: Common Poor Will
  • The Oldest Parrot: Blue & Gold Macaw
  • THE ONLY birds that can fly BACK: hummingbirds
  • The largest flying parrot species is the hyacinth macaw
  • The rarest wild parrot in the world: the Spixa macaw
  • Pappagalli che costruiscono "casette per gli uccelli": Iquaker parrot
  • The most common hawk in North America
  • The Eurasian eagle owl is the largest owl in the world
  • Record holder for the expression of most words: commonBudgie(over 1700 words)

Avianweb LLC: | We respect your privacy:

Note: Any content posted on this site is commented or written as an opinion and is protected by freedom of expression. They are provided for educational and entertainment purposes only and do not in any way replace professional advice. Neither Avianweb / BeautyOfBirds nor any of their authors / editors assume any responsibility for the use or misuse of any published material. By using this website, you agree to these terms.

This online archive of the CDC Prevention Guidelines database is maintained for historical purposes and contains no new entries since October 1998. To find the latest guidelines, please visit the following pages:

MMWR 47 (RR10); 13-14


Date of publication: October 7, 1998

Item

Medicated feed should be the only food given to birds throughout the treatment. The uptake of medicated feed by birds varies. Therefore, food consumption should be monitored. Acceptance can be increased by first adapting the birds to a similar, non-medicated diet. Treatment begins when the birds take medicated feed as the only food in their diet. The following options are available:

  • Diets based on medicinal mashed potatoes (i. e. greater than or equal to 1% chlortetracyclinecontaining less than 0.7% calcium) prepared with corn. *
  • White millet seeds impregnated with 0.5 mg CTC / g of seeds (Keet Life) should only be used for budgies and finches. It should be used for 30 days. Hartz Mountain (Secaucus, NJ) is the sole producer.
  • Pellets and extrusions containing 1% CTC can be used. They are available and suitable for most pet birds. Select the pellet size suitable for the size of the bird to be treated.
  • A special diet may be required for lory and lorikeet who feed on nectar and fruit in the wild.

The National Association of State Public Health Veterinians (NASPHV) can provide a list of companies that sell medicated feed. Address requests to NASPHV, RSA Tower, Suite 1310, P. O. Box 303017, Montgomery, AL 36130-3017.

Oral or parenteral treatments

The three treatments available include oral doxycycline, injection doxycycline, and injection oxytetracycline.

Doxycycline is the drug of choice for oral therapy; monohydrate preparations or calcium syrups can be used. Based on non-peer-reviewed studies, dosage recommendations are as follows: 40-50 mg / kg body weight orally once daily for nymphs, Senegalese parrots and Amazonian blue-headed and orange-winged parrots; and 25 mg / kg body weight orally once daily for African gray parrots, Goffin’s cockatoos, blue and golden macaws, and green-winged macaws. Exact doses cannot be extrapolated to untested species; however, 25-30 mg / kg po once daily is the recommended starting dose for cockatoos and macaws, and 25-50 mg / kg po once daily is recommended for other psittacine species. If the bird returns the medicine, another treatment must be used.

Intramuscular (IM) injection into the pectoral muscle is often the simplest treatment option, but not all injectable formulations of doxycycline are suitable for IM injection. Allavailable formulations can cause irritation at the injection site. VibrovenosTM (Pfizer Laboratories, London, Ontario, Canada) is available in Canada and Europe and is effective when administered at doses of 75-100 mg / kg body weight intramuscularly every 5-7 days for the first 4 weeks, then every 5 weeks thereafter days for the duration of the treatment. Anecdotal reports indicate that pharmaceutical preparations containing doxycycline for injection have been used successfully in the United States. However, there are insufficient data to identify exact dosing regimens. The injectable formulation of hyclate intended for intravenous use in humans in the United States is not suitable for intramuscular use in birds as severe tissue reactions will occur at the injection site.

Information on the use of a long-acting injectable oxytetracycline product (LA-200TM; Pfizer Laboratories, Exton, Pennsylvania) is limited. Current dosage recommendations are as follows: subcutaneous injection of 75 mg / kg body weight every 3 days in Goffin’s cockatoos, blue-fronted and orange-winged Amazon parrots, and blue-gold macaws. This dose may be appropriate but has not been tested in other species. This product causes irritation at the injection site and is best suited to initiate treatment in sick or reluctant birds. Once the oxytetracycline treatment has stabilized, the birds should switch to another form of treatment to reduce muscle irritation caused by repeated injections of oxytetracycline.

Treatment protocols are currently being studied for the use of fluoroquinolones, latest generation macrolides, doxycycline for injectable pharmaceutical mixtures and feeds containing doxycycline. Information on these treatment protocols may be available in the scientific literature or from avian veterinarians.

* The recommended recipe is 2 pounds of rice, 2 pounds of chicken feed and 3 liters of water, boiled for 15 minutes at full pressure in a pressure cooker. Add 10 mg of chlortetracycline / g of feed after cooling the cooked feed. Keep in mind that birds may find this diet unpleasant and may not accept it.

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Did you know

More interesting facts

  • What is the SMALLEST bird alive.
  • This bird can hibernate for months: Common Poor Will
  • The Oldest Parrot: Blue & Gold Macaw
  • THE ONLY birds that can fly BACK: hummingbirds
  • The largest flying parrot species is the hyacinth macaw
  • The rarest wild parrot in the world: the Spixa macaw
  • Pappagalli che costruiscono "casette per gli uccelli": Iquaker parrot
  • The most common hawk in North America
  • The Eurasian eagle owl is the largest owl in the world
  • Record holder for the expression of most words: commonBudgie(over 1700 words)

Avianweb LLC: | We respect your privacy:

Note: Any content posted on this site is commented or written as an opinion and is protected by freedom of expression. They are provided for educational and entertainment purposes only and do not in any way replace professional advice. Neither Avianweb / BeautyOfBirds nor any of their authors / editors assume any responsibility for the use or misuse of any published material. By using this website, you agree to these terms.

POSSIBILITY OF CHLAMIDIC TREATMENT FOR COMPANION BIRDS

Veterinarians can choose from several treatments for avian chlamydia (AC). Although these protocols tend to be successful, knowledge is evolving and no treatment protocol can guarantee the safe treatment or complete elimination of Chlamydia psittaci infection in all avian species. Therefore, the treatment must be supervised by a licensed veterinarian.

Methods of treatment

There are several treatments for AC. The following are considered effective treatment methods:

Medicated feed should be the only food given to birds during treatment. The uptake of medicated feed by birds varies. Therefore, food consumption should be monitored. Acceptance can be increased by first adapting the birds to a similar, non-medicated diet. Treatment begins when the birds take medicated feed as the only food in their diet.

Diets based on medicinal mashed potatoes (i. e. greater than or equal to 1% chlortetracyclinecontaining less than 0.7% calcium) prepared with corn. *

White millet seeds, soaked in 0.5 mg CTC / g of seeds, can only be used for budgies and finches. It should be used for 30 days (Keet Life; Hartz Mountain is the sole producer.)

Granules and extruded products containing 1% CTC can be used. They are available and suitable for use with most pet birds. The size of the pellet should be adequate for the size of the bird to be treated. The treatment period is 45 days.

A special diet may be needed for birds belonging to the parrot subfamily known as Loriidae (i. e. Lori and Lorikeets), which naturally eat nectar and fruit.

Oral or parenteral treatments

The birds should be treated for a total of 45 days. There are three of these treatments.

Oral doxycycline. Doxycycline is the drug of choice for oral therapy; monohydrate preparations or calcium syrups can be used. Based on peer-reviewed studies, dosage recommendations are as follows: 40-50 mg / kg orally once daily for nymphs, Senegalese parrots and Amazonian blue-fronted and orange-winged parrots; and 25 mg / kg orally once daily for gray parrots, Goffin’s cockatoos, and blue-gold and green-winged macaws. Exact doses cannot be extrapolated to untested species; however, 25-30 mg / kg po once daily is the recommended starting dose for cockatoos and macaws, and 25-50 mg / kg po once daily is recommended for other psittacine species. If the bird returns the medicine, another treatment must be used.

Doxycycline for injection. Intramuscular (IM) injection into the pectoral muscle is often the simplest treatment option, but not all injectable formulations of doxycycline are suitable for intramuscular injection. All currently available preparations can cause irritation at the injection site. Vibrovenos (Pfizer Laboratories) is available in Europe and Canada and is effective when administered at doses of 75-100 mg / kg intramuscularly every 5-7 days for the first 4 weeks and then every 5 days for the duration of treatment. There are unconfirmed reports of the successful use of injectable pharmaceutical preparations containing doxycycline in the United States. However, there are insufficient data to identify exact dosing regimens. Hyclate for injection, which has been labeled for intravenous (IV) use in humans in the United States, is not suitable for intramuscular use because severe tissue reactions will occur at the injection site.

Oxytetracycline for injection. There is limited information on the use of injectable long-acting oxytetracycline (LA-200, Pfizer Laboratories). Current dosing recommendations are as follows: subcutaneous injection of 75 mg / kg every 3 days in Goffin’s cockatoo, blue-fronted, orange-winged Amazon parrots, and blue-gold macaw. This dose may be appropriate for other species but has not been tested. This product causes irritation at the injection site and is best suited to initiate treatment in sick or reluctant birds. Once the oxytetracycline treatment has stabilized, the birds should switch to another form of treatment to reduce muscle irritation caused by repeated injections of oxytetracycline.

Treatment protocols using fluoroquinolones, latest generation macrolides, injectable pharmaceutical compounds of doxycycline and feeds containing doxycycline are currently being studied. Information on these treatment protocols may be available in the scientific literature or from avian veterinarians.

Sources of medicinal feed

Medicated feed is available from several sources. The State National Association of Public Health Veterinarians can provide a list of providers. Fare richiesta all’Associazione presso RSA Tower, Ste. 1310, P. O. Box 303017, Montgomery, AL 36130-3017.

* The recommended recipe is 2 pounds of rice, 2 pounds of chicken feed and 3 liters of water, boiled for 15 minutes at full pressure in a pressure cooker. Add 10 mg of chlortetracycline / g of feed after cooling the cooked feed. Keep in mind that birds may find this diet unpleasant and may not accept it.

Reservation AllMMWR The HTML versions of the articles are electronic conversions from ASCII text to HTML. This conversion may have resulted in character translation or formatting errors in the HTML version. Users should not rely on this HTML document, but reference is made to the electronic version of the PDF and / or the original MMWR a hard copy of the official text, figures and tables. An original paper copy of this issue can be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office (GPO), Washington, DC 20402-9371; phone: (202) 512-1800. Contact GPO for current prices.

** Send questions or messages related to formatting errors to mmwrq @ cdc. government.

Weekly morbidity and mortality report
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd, MailStop E-90, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA