This article was medically reviewed by David Nazarian, MD. Dr. David Nazarian is a board certified Internal Medicine Physician and the Owner of My Concierge MD, a medical practice in Beverly Hills California, specializing in concierge medicine, executive health and integrative medicine. Dr. Nazarian specializes in comprehensive physical examinations, IV Vitamin therapies, hormone replacement therapy, weight loss, platelet rich plasma therapies. He has over 16 years of medical training and facilitation and is a Diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine. He completed his B.S. in Psychology and Biology from the University of California, Los Angeles, his M.D. from the Sackler School of Medicine, and a residency at Huntington Memorial Hospital, an affiliate of the University of Southern California.
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The common cold is a highly contiguous virus that infects your nose and throat. Colds are very common, especially in children. You can expect a child to get a cold six to 10 times a year if in daycare or school; adults typically get a cold two to four times a year. Although it is usually harmless, with symptoms that include a runny nose, sore throat, watery eyes, mild headache, low-grade fever, fatigue, loss of appetite, congestion, and cough, it may not feel so harmless. There is no cure for the common cold (it is not treatable with antibiotics) and most people will recover in approximately a week or two. Through self-care measures, including getting rest and drinking plenty of fluids, you may feel more comfortable as your body fights off the infection.  X Trustworthy Source Mayo Clinic Educational website from one of the world’s leading hospitals Go to source
Sore throat and runny nose are usually the first signs of a cold, followed by coughing and sneezing. Most people recover in about 7-10 days. You can help reduce your risk of getting a cold: wash your hands often, avoid close contact with sick people, and don’t touch your face with unwashed hands.
Common colds are the main reason that children miss school and adults miss work. Each year in the United States, there are millions of cases of the common cold. Adults have an average of 2-3 colds per year, and children have even more.
Most people get colds in the winter and spring, but it is possible to get a cold any time of the year. Symptoms usually include:
- sore throat
- runny nose
- body aches
Most people recover within about 7-10 days. However, people with weakened immune systems, asthma, or respiratory conditions may develop serious illness, such as bronchitis or pneumonia.
Help reduce your risk of getting a cold by washing hands often with soap and water.
How to Protect Yourself
Viruses that cause colds can spread from infected people to others through the air and close personal contact. You can also get infected through contact with stool (poop) or respiratory secretions from an infected person. This can happen when you shake hands with someone who has a cold, or touch a surface, like a doorknob, that has respiratory viruses on it, then touch your eyes, mouth, or nose.
You can help reduce your risk of getting a cold:
- Wash your hands often with soap and water. Wash them for 20 seconds, and help young children do the same. If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Viruses that cause colds can live on your hands, and regular handwashing can help protect you from getting sick.
- Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands. Viruses that cause colds can enter your body this way and make you sick.
- Stay away from people who are sick. Sick people can spread viruses that cause the common cold through close contact with others.
Practice good cough and sneeze etiquette: always cough and sneeze into a tissue or your upper shirt sleeve, completely covering your mouth and nose.
How to Protect Others
If you have a cold, you should follow these tips to help prevent spreading it to other people:
- Stay at home while you are sick and keep children out of school or daycare while they are sick.
- Avoid close contact with others, such as hugging, kissing, or shaking hands.
- Move away from people before coughing or sneezing.
- Cough and sneeze into a tissue then throw it away, or cough and sneeze into your upper shirt sleeve, completely covering your mouth and nose.
- Wash your hands after coughing, sneezing, or blowing your nose.
- Disinfect frequently touched surfaces and objects, such as toys, doorknobs, and mobile devices.
There is no vaccine to protect you against the common cold.
How to Feel Better
There is no cure for a cold. To feel better, you should get lots of rest and drink plenty of fluids. Over-the-counter medicines may help ease symptoms but will not make your cold go away any faster. Always read the label and use medications as directed. Talk to your doctor before giving your child nonprescription cold medicines, since some medicines contain ingredients that are not recommended for children. Learn more about symptom relief of upper respiratory infections, including colds.
Antibiotics will not help you recover from a cold caused by a respiratory virus. They do not work against viruses, and they may make it harder for your body to fight future bacterial infections if you take them unnecessarily. Learn more about when antibiotics work.
When to See a Doctor
You should call your doctor if you or your child has one or more of these conditions:
- symptoms that last more than 10 days
- symptoms that are severe or unusual
- if your child is younger than 3 months of age and has a fever or is lethargic
You should also call your doctor right away if you are at high risk for serious flu complications and get flu symptoms such as fever, chills, and muscle or body aches. People at high risk for flu complications include young children (younger than 5 years old), adults 65 years and older, pregnant women, and people with certain medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, and heart disease.
Your doctor can determine if you or your child has a cold or the flu and can recommend treatment to help with symptoms.
Causes of the Common Cold
Many different respiratory viruses can cause the common cold, but rhinoviruses are the most common. Rhinoviruses can also trigger asthma attacks and have been linked to sinus and ear infections. Other viruses that can cause colds include respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza viruses, adenovirus, common human coronaviruses, and human metapneumovirus.
Know the Difference between Common Cold and Flu
The flu, which is caused by influenza viruses, also spreads and causes illness around the same time as the common cold. Because these two illnesses have similar symptoms, it can be difficult (or even impossible) to tell the difference between them based on symptoms alone. In general, flu symptoms are worse than the common cold and can include fever or feeling feverish/chills, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headaches and fatigue (tiredness). Flu can also have very serious complications. CDC recommends a yearly flu vaccination as the first and best way to prevent the flu. If you get the flu, antiviral drugs may be a treatment option.
Colds are very common. A visit to your health care provider’s office is often not needed, and colds often get better in 3 to 4 days.
A type of germ called a virus causes most colds. There are many types of viruses that can cause a cold. Depending on what virus you have, your symptoms may vary.
Common symptoms of a cold include:
- Fever (100В°F [37.7В°C] or higher) and chills
- Headache, sore muscles, and fatigue
- Nasal symptoms, such as stuffiness, runny nose, yellow or green snot, and sneezing
- Sore throat
Mild symptoms of COVID-19 may be similar to those of the common cold. Always check with your health provider if you are at risk for COVID-19.
Treating Your Cold
Treating your symptoms will not make your cold go away, but will help you feel better. Antibiotics are almost never needed to treat a common cold.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower fever and relieve muscle aches.
- Do not use aspirin.
- Check the label for the proper dose.
- Call your provider if you need to take these medicines more than 4 times per day or for more than 2 or 3 days.
Over-the-counter (OTC) cold and cough medicines may help ease symptoms in adults and older children.
- They are not recommended for children under age 6. Talk to your provider before giving your child OTC cold medicine, which can have serious side effects.
- Coughing is your body’s way of getting mucus out of your lungs. So use cough syrups only when your cough becomes too painful.
- Throat lozenges or sprays for your sore throat.
Many cough and cold medicines you buy have more than one medicine inside. Read the labels carefully to make sure you do not take too much of any one medicine. If you take prescription medicines for another health problem, ask your provider which OTC cold medicines are safe for you.
Drink plenty of fluids, get enough sleep, and stay away from secondhand smoke.
Wheezing can be a common symptom of a cold if you have asthma.
- Use your rescue inhaler as prescribed if you are wheezing.
- See your provider immediately if it becomes hard to breathe.
Many home remedies are popular treatments for the common cold. These include vitamin C, zinc supplements, and echinacea.
Although not proven to be helpful, most home remedies are safe for most people.
- Some remedies may cause side effects or allergic reactions.
- Certain remedies may change the way other medicines work.
- Talk to your provider before trying any herbs and supplements.
Preventing the Spread of Colds
Wash your hands often. This is the best way to stop the spread of germs.
To wash your hands correctly:
- Rub soap onto wet hands for 20 seconds. Make sure to get under your fingernails. Dry your hands with a clean paper towel and turn faucet off with paper towel.
- You can also use alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Use a dime size amount and rub all over your hands until they are dry.
To further prevent colds:
- Stay home when you are sick.
- Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crook of your elbow and not into the air.
When to Call the Doctor
Try treating your cold at home first. Call your provider right away, or go to the emergency room, if you have:
- Difficulty breathing
- Sudden chest pain or abdominal pain
- Sudden dizziness
- Acting strangely
- Severe vomiting that does not go away
Also call your provider if:
- You start acting strangely
- Your symptoms get worse or do not improve after 7 to 10 days
In this Article
In this Article
In this Article
- Prevent Colds With Frequent Hand Washing
- Natural Tips for Preventing the Common Cold
- Common Cold Prevention at School
If you’re sick of being sick with a cold, then it’s time to learn some cold prevention techniques. There are ways to prevent a cold. You just need to learn and use some new behaviors and lifestyle habits, every day. Here is how you can stay well.
Prevent Colds With Frequent Hand Washing
Your best protection from the common cold and flu is frequent hand washing. The simple friction that occurs when you rub skin against skin while using warm water and soap followed by thorough rinsing and drying can get rid of most potentially harmful germs.
While germs are often transferred to others through household objects — telephones, doorknobs, toothbrushes, and faucet handles — the biggest transportation center for germs is your hands. That’s why frequent hand washing gets rid of the illness-causing germs and helps to prevent the spread of some diseases — especially if a family member, friend, or classmate has a cold or flu virus.
The CDC estimates that as many as 56,000 people die from the flu or flu-like illness each year. The CDC also says the simple act of hand washing is the single most important means of preventing the spread of viral and bacterial infections. Yet some studies reveal that many Americans using public restrooms don’t wash their hands before leaving. People also forget to wash their hands before preparing meals, and they grab snacks without thinking of washing their hands beforehand. If you want to help prevent colds, just stop — and wash your hands.
Natural Tips for Preventing the Common Cold
You can’t cure a common cold. The best thing you can do is prevent catching the virus that causes the common cold.
For in-depth information, see WebMD’s 8 Natural Tips to Prevent a Cold.
Common Cold Prevention at School
Kids lose about 22 million school days collectively because of the cold virus. If you’re a parent, you know how a cold can run through a family, making everyone miserable. But there are some excellent tips to stop germs at school.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: “Common Cold.”
FDA: “What to Do for Colds and Flu.”
American Lung Association: “A Survival Guide for Preventing and Treating Influenza and the Common Cold.”
National Jewish Medical and Research Center: “Is it a Cold or the Flu?”
The Common Cold & Flu
As sure as the summer becomes fall, cold season arrives every year. When kids go back to school and office decorations switch to their winter wear and everyone starts spending more time inside, knowing how to help prevent the common cold is an important step toward keeping yourself and your family healthy while infection rates are on the rise.
Cold Prevention that Works
Prevention is the best line of defense against the common cold. Luckily, preventing a cold is simpler than treating it—and includes daily activities you already practice: i
- Wash your hands. Wash hands when you typically would—before meals, after using the washroom—but take that hand washing a step further during cold season. Make sure you’re washing with warm to hot water for at least 20 seconds. In a pinch, hand sanitizer will do, too.
- Don’t touch your face. Sure, you may need to touch your face sometimes throughout the course of the day, but try to do it only when necessary and only with washed hands. Avoid your nose, eyes, and mouth especially, as these are spots where the cold virus can find its way into your system most easily.
- Avoid those who have the cold already. The cold virus spreads easily through contact with a symptomatic person. Schools, offices, public transit, grocery stores—these are all places where it’s possible to come into contact with someone who has the common cold.
How to Treat a Cold
Put those antibiotics down. The cold is a virus—it cannot be treated with antibiotics.
The truth is, there is no cure for the common cold. If prevention efforts didn’t work and you still find yourself experiencing symptoms, easing those symptoms is the best you can do until the cold has run its course. Ways you can take care of your cold symptoms (and yourself) include:
- Rest up. Don’t push yourself too hard. Take time off if you can, and don’t over-exert yourself.
- Stay hydrated. Water and non-sugary drinks are your best friends right now. Warm liquids are also helpful for soothing sore throats.[i]
- Try over-the-counter medications to ease symptoms like pain and stuffiness. While you can’t prevent a cold with OTC medicines, you can seek symptom relief. Depending on age and symptoms, Advil® Multi-Symptom Cold & Flu or Advil® Cold & Sinus may be appropriate options.
- Try a humidifier. Adding moisture to the air can help soothe dry sinuses and may loosen congestion.[ii]
Drink Water, Stay Hydrated to Prevent and Treat the Common Cold
Drinking water to prevent and treat the common cold has been shown to be of absolute utmost importance. If you don’t want to get sick or suffer with worsening allergy flare ups, you gotta make sure you are drinking enough water each and every day. According to Dr. Charles Davis of MedicineNet.com:
The drainage of mucous from the sinuses can also be impaired by thickening of the mucous secretions, by decrease in hydration (water content)…
Think about it this way. You are exposed to allergens, bacteria and viruses every second of the day. They live on your skin, are in the air you breath and are on every single thing you touch. Sure, you must wash your hands and use hand sanitizing lotion, and some may hold their breath while in the elevator with a sneezy person, but you are still the minority in the world of trillions of microscopic organisms and substances that can make you sick.
Your advantage- the immune system. Your body’s military is ready to deploy at the first sign of invasion. However, these cells are like predator fish. They need water to be able to travel through your body efficiently. If the river flowing through your blood vessels are thick, those military cells have difficulty reaching their destination. Therefore, remaining in a state of dehydration can significantly increase your risk of getting sick.
We know that for fact you cannot catch a cold from simply being in cold weather. Researchers have hypothesized that people spend more times indoors with each other, which allows an easier spread of pathogens through air, touch, etc. I’m not too sure I buy this theory because most of us are indoors most of the day regardless of the season. It makes more sense to me that most of us do not drink as much water in the winter because of cooler temperatures. Personally, I hate drinking cold water when it is chilly. As it turns out, this mild level of dehydration may put you at risk.
Keep it simple and devise a plan to drink water throughout the day. If you have not had any water within the past hour, you need to drink. Always start and end your day with a least half a cup of water. Down a full glass during every meal and drink with every snack. If you drink alcohol, you may need to drink more water to counter the dehydrating effects with a few extra glasses.
Two general rules to know when you need to drink water:
- If your urine is yellow to dark yellow- drink more.
- If you are thirsty, then you are already dehydrated.
Always be sure to ask your doctor about your drinking habits if you have a heart or kidney problems.
Otherwise, keep drinking and enjoy the many health benefits of nature’s best.
What do you do to keep yourself from getting sick? Leave your healthy tip in the Facebook comments section below!
One day youвЂ™re fine. The next you have a scratchy throat, watery eyes, and a runny nose. ThereвЂ™s a tickle in the back of your throat, and your normally high energy is nowhere to be found.
Yes, these are early signs that youвЂ™re coming down with something. But donвЂ™t grab your tissue box and hop into bed just yet — there are ways to nip that cold in the bud.
Rest and Cut Your Stress
ThereвЂ™s a “mind-body” link when it comes to fighting off a cold, says Irene M. Estores, MD, of University of Florida Health. If you feel tired, overworked, sad, or angry, those emotions can sink your mood. That can slow your immune system just when you need it running at full power to fight the cold virus.
Listen to your body when you feel a cold coming on. Get all the sleep you can. Try to manage on your stress, too. “When youвЂ™re stressed out, youвЂ™re more likely to get a cold,” Estores says.
Usually when you feel a cold coming on, your immune system jumps in and fights the virus. But too much stress cuts the number of cells that make up the front lines of defense. Stress also pumps up the level of cortisol in your body. This hormone zaps your immune system, and that makes you an easier target for a cold.
So do something that relaxes you: Listen to music, meditate, or do a light workout. And remember to rest, Estores says. Your body needs that, too.
When you have a stuffy head or nose, fluids are your friend. TheyвЂ™ll help unclog your nose and thin any mucus so you can cough or blow it out, says Jean Carstensen, MD, who teaches medicine and pediatrics at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor.
Keep a full glass close by. As long as it doesnвЂ™t have alcohol or caffeine in it, any drink will help keep you hydrated. But plain water is best, Carstensen says.
If you feel feverish, drink even more. A high temperature can dehydrate you as you sweat.
Sip Hot Tea and Honey
Drinking warm liquids helps to open up your stuffy nose and soothe a sore throat. Hot tea with a little bit of honey can hush a cough. But donвЂ™t give honey to children under 1 year old. If it contains bacteria called clostridium, it can cause botulism and make your little one very sick.
If you canвЂ™t hold off a cold, itвЂ™ll take 5-7 days for your symptoms to improve, Carstensen says.
To feel better until it fades, start with over-the-counter medications like antihistamines with decongestants. You can take pain medicine like ibuprofen and acetaminophen for aches and pains.В
DonвЂ™t give a child younger than 4 years any cough or cold medicine, due to safety risks in children that young. For older children, teens, or even adults, make sure you follow all dosing instructions on the label.В
Irene M. Estores, MD, medical director, integrative medicine program, University of Florida Health.
Jean C. Carstensen, MD, clinical instructor of internal medicine and pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: “Common Colds: Protect Yourself and Others.”
Cohen, S. Psychological Science, September 2003.
Harvard Health Publications: “Using the relaxation response to reduce stress.”
Cohen, S. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, April 2012.
- 1 University of Virginia Department of Family Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
- PMID: 31478634
- Search in PubMed
- Search in NLM Catalog
- Add to Search
- 1 University of Virginia Department of Family Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA.
- PMID: 31478634
Acute upper respiratory tract infections are extremely common in adults and children, but only a few safe and effective treatments are available. Patients typically present with nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough, general malaise, and/or low-grade fever. Informing patients about the self-limited nature of the common cold can help manage expectations, limit antibiotic use, and avoid over-the-counter purchases that may not help. Treatments with proven effectiveness for cold symptoms in adults include over-the-counter analgesics, zinc, nasal decongestants with or without antihistamines, and ipratropium for cough. Lower-quality evidence suggests that Lactobacillus casei may be beneficial in older adults. The only established safe and effective treatments for children are acetylcysteine, honey (for children one year and older), nasal saline irrigation, intranasal ipratropium, and topical application of ointment containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oils. Over-the-counter cold medications should not be used in children younger than four years. Counseling patients about the importance of good hand hygiene is the best way to prevent transmission of cold viruses.