How to study the structure and function of human skin

How to study the structure and function of human skin

Covering an average of 20 square feet, the skin is the body’s largest and heaviest organ. Its most obvious task is to protect our insides from the outside, but leather is so much more.

In addition to acting as a protective barrier, the skin helps us maintain an adequate internal temperature and allows us to feel the world through our nerve endings.

The skin is a complex organ; the average square centimeter of the skin contains 650 sweat glands, 20 blood vessels and over 1000 nerve endings. Even though it is only a few millimeters thick, the skin represents about one seventh of our body weight.

In this article, we’ll cover the basics of the skin, how it’s built, what it does, and how it does it.

The skin has three basic levels: epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue:

Epidermis

Main roles: creates new skin cells, gives them color, protects the body.

How to study the structure and function of human skin

Share on Pinterest Basic skin texture.

The outermost layer is the epidermis; it is a waterproof barrier that gives the skin the right color.

Dead cells are constantly eliminated from the epidermis as new cells appear in their place.

We lose around 500 million skin cells every day. In fact, the outermost parts of the epidermis are made up of 25-30 layers of dead cells.

New cells are formed in the lower layers of the epidermis. In about 4 weeks, they rise to the surface, become hard, and replace dead skin cells when they lose.

Keratinocytes are the most common type of cells in the epidermis; their role is to act as a barrier against bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses, heat, ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun and water loss.

Epidermis nie zawiera naczyń krwionośnych.

The color of our skin is produced by a pigment called melanin, produced by melanocytes; they are found in the epidermis and protect the skin from UV rays.

Epidermis podzielony jest na pięć warstw:

  • the stratum corneum
  • transparent layer
  • granular layer
  • coat of mail layer
  • germinating layer

Between the epidermis and the dermis, there is a thin sheet of fibers called the basement membrane.

dermis

Main roles: secretes sweat and oil, provides sensations and blood supply to the skin, makes hair grow.

Il dermis è principalmente tessuto connettivo che protegge il corpo da stress e tensioni; gives the skin strength and elasticity. Jeśli dermis jest mocno rozciągnięta, na przykład w czasie ciąży, dermis może zostać rozdarta, co objawia się tak zwanymi rozstępami.

I recettori che rilevano la pressione (meccanocettori), il dolore (nocicettori) e il calore (termocettori) si trovano nel dermis.

Nel dermis ci sono follicoli piliferi, vasi sanguigni e vasi linfatici. It is also home to many glands, including the sweat and sebaceous glands that produce sebum, an oil that lubricates and soaks hair.

Il dermis è ulteriormente suddiviso in due strati:

Papillary region: made up of loose connective tissue, it has finger-shaped protrusions that dig into the epidermis. Queste sporgenze conferiscono al dermis una superficie irregolare e sono responsabili dei modelli che abbiamo sulle dita.

Reticular region: consisting of dense and irregularly organized connective tissue. The protein fibers in the reticular area give the skin strength and elasticity.

Subcutaneous tissue

Ruoli principali: attacca il dermis al corpo, controlla la temperatura corporea, immagazzina il tessuto adiposo.

The innermost layer is called subcutaneous tissue, subcutaneous or subcutaneous tissue. Technically, it’s not part of the skin, but it helps attach the skin to the underlying bones and muscles. Subcutaneous tissue also provides skin with nerves and blood supply.

Subcutaneous tissue is made up mainly of fat, connective tissue and elastin (an elastic protein that helps tissues return to their normal shape when they are stretched). High levels of fat help insulate the body and prevent excessive heat loss. The fat layer also acts as a protection, lining our bones and muscles.

Some hormones are produced by fat cells in the subcutaneous tissue, such as vitamin D.

A new understanding has emerged of the links between human physiology and the skin microbiota.

The diversity of microorganisms is governed by genetics and the different environment of the skin.

Host and microbe interactions shape and influence skin health.

Commensal microorganisms exhibit unique behaviors that allow for tolerance.

Human skin is home to a rich and diverse collection of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Questi microrganismi differiscono tra gli individui e i diversi punti della pelle. The factors responsible for the extreme variability of the skin microbiome are only partially understood, but the results suggest that genetic and environmental influences of the host play an important role. Currently, the constant accumulation of data describing the skin microbiome, combined with experiments aimed at testing the biological functions of surface microbes, has provided new insights into the links between human physiology and the skin microbiome. This review provides some up-to-date information on the skin microbiome and its impact on human health. In particular, we summarize the current understanding of the function of microbial-host interactions on the skin and highlight some unique characteristics that distinguish commensal skin organisms from pathogenic microbes.

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We all have skin. It covers our whole body and keeps the good things on the inside and the bad things on the outside. But what exactly is leather? We’ll go over the details below, but for starters, the skin is an organ. Just like the heart or the brain. It is an important organ that performs many functions that allow us to live.

Coating system

The skin is part of an important organ system known as the integument system. Coating system składa się ze skóry, włosów, paznokci i gruczołów zewnątrzwydzielniczych.

The functions of the skin

The skin is multipurpose, which means it has many functions. This is our first line of protection against the external environment, it houses one of our five senses, absorbs sunlight for vitamin D and heat, and regulates our internal temperature.

  • Safety – One of the basic functions of the skin is protection. On most of your body, the skin is about 2mm thick. In some areas, such as the eyelids, it is thinner, while in others, such as the soles of the feet, it is much thicker. The skin helps keep harmful things, like germs and dirt, which can cause infections away from our body. It also retains good things like fluids like water and blood.
  • Sense of touch – There is also one of our five senses in the skin: touch. There are thousands of sensors or receptor cells in our skin. These sensors send information to the brain about the things we touch. They can tell the brain if it’s hot, cold, rough, smooth, or painful. Different areas of our body have more receptor cells than others. Our hands, feet and mouth have additional receptors, making these areas even more sensitive. In fact, there are different types of receptor cells for each type of sensation.
  • Temperature control – The skin plays an important role in regulating our body temperature. When we get too hot, it sweats to cool us down. It can also widen the blood vessels in the skin to get more blood near the skin where it can cool down. At the same time, the skin can constrict blood vessels, which helps keep us warm. By controlling blood flow and sweat, the skin regulates our body temperature.

Layers of skin

The skin has three base layers. Each has its own function.

  • Epidermis – Epidermis to zewnętrzna warstwa skóry. Its main function is protection. The cells in the outermost layer of the epidermis constantly die and are replaced by new cells.
  • dermis – Il dermis è più spesso dell’epidermide. Il dermis contiene globuli, follicoli piliferi e ghiandole sudoripare.
  • Ippodermis– Subcutaneous tissue leży pod skórą właściwą i łączy skórę z mięśniami i kośćmi.

See the photo below for more detailed parts of the skin:

How to study the structure and function of human skin

A. Epidermis
B. dermis
C. Ippodermis
D. Blood vessels
E. layer of shoots
1. hair roller
2. Loss of the horn
3. Layer of pigment
4. The spinous layer
5. The base of the level
6. The erector Pili muscle
7. The sebaceous gland
8. Hair follicle
9. Hair wart
10. Nerve fiber
11. Sweat gland
12. Pacini’s body
13. Artery
14. She was alive
15. End of sensory nerves (for touch)
16. Cutaneous papillary
17. Pores of sweat

To experiment:
Skin temperature – How does our skin lower or raise its temperature?

Membership

  • 1 Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine of Cerrahpaşa, University of Stambuł, Fatih, Stambuł.
  • PMID: 24314373
  • DOI: 10.1016 / j. Cinderella 2013.05.021
  • Search for PubMed
  • Look in the NLM directory
  • Add to search

Author’s

Membership

  • 1 Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine of Cerrahpaşa, University of Stambuł, Fatih, Stambuł.
  • PMID: 24314373
  • DOI: 10.1016 / j. Cinderella 2013.05.021

Abstract

The skin and its epidermisl-derived appendages (hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, nails, and mammary glands) make up the lining system. Istologicamente, la pelle è costituita da due strati principali – l’epidermide e il dermis – con una fascia sottocutanea chiamata tessuto sottocutaneo che si trova in profondità all’interno del dermis. Epidermis składa się z czterech do pięciu warstw komórek zbudowanych głównie z keratynocytów, wraz z trzema innymi różnymi i mniej obfitymi komórkami. Il dermis è la base dell’epidermide. Subcutaneous tissue to luźniejsza tkanka łączna, która znajduje się pod skórą właściwą. Si fonde con il dermis con un bordo sfocato.

Details of the largest organ in the body

Heather L. Brannon, MD, is a primary care physician in Mauldin, South Carolina. In practice for over 20 years.

Casey Gallagher, MD, è un dermistologo certificato e lavora come dermistologo praticante e professore clinico.

How to study the structure and function of human skin

The skin is the largest organ and one of the most complex. It is constantly evolving and contains many specialized cells and structures. The primary function of the skin is to act as a protective barrier that interacts over time with a hostile environment.

It also helps regulate body temperature, collects sensory information from the surrounding environment, and plays an active role in the immune system, protecting the body from disease.

La comprensione della funzione della pelle inizia con la comprensione della struttura dei tre strati della pelle: epidermide, dermis e tessuto sottocutaneo.

How to study the structure and function of human skin

The Epidermis

Epidermis jest najbardziej zewnętrzną warstwą z trzech warstw skóry. Its thickness depends on where it is on the body. For example, it is thinner on the eyelids (half a millimeter). It is thicker on the palms and soles of the feet (1.5 millimeters).

  • Base layer: This lower layer, also known as the basal cell layer, has column-shaped basal cells that divide and push older cells towards the surface of the skin. As the cells move through the skin, they flatten out and eventually die and shed.
  • pointed layer: This layer, also known as the scaly layer, is the thickest layer of the epidermis. Contains newly formed keratinocytes which strengthen proteins. It also contains Langerhans cells to help prevent infections.
  • granular layer: This layer contains more keratinocytes that move towards the surface.
  • transparent layer: This layer is found only on the palms and soles of the feet.
  • the stratum corneum: It is the outermost or upper layer of the epidermis. It consists of dead, flat keratinocytes that shed approximately every two weeks.

Epidermis zawiera trzy wyspecjalizowane komórki:

  • Pigment-producing melanocytes (melanin)
  • Langerhans cells, which act as the first line of defense in the skin’s immune system
  • Merkel cells that perform a function not yet fully understood.

The dermis

Il dermis è lo strato intermedio dei tre strati di pelle. It is located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue. Contains connective tissue, capillaries, sebaceous and sweat glands, nerve endings and hair follicles.

Il dermis è diviso in due parti: il dermis papillare, che è il sottile strato superiore, e il dermis reticolato, che è lo spesso strato inferiore.

Lo spessore del dermis varia a seconda di dove si trova sul corpo. It has a thickness of 0.6mm on the eyelids. On the back, palms and soles of the feet, it is 3 millimeters thick.

Il dermis ospita tre diversi tipi di tessuto che sono presenti ovunque:

  • Collagen
  • Flexible fabric
  • Reticular fibers

Il dermis contiene diverse cellule e strutture specializzate, tra cui:

  • Hair follicles
  • Sebaceous glands
  • Apocrine and endocrine glands
  • Blood vessels and nerve endings
  • Meissner bodies and lamellar bodies that transmit sensations of touch and pressure.

Subcutaneous tissue

Subcutaneous tissue is the deepest and innermost layer of the three layers of skin. It consists mainly of fat, connective tissue, and larger blood vessels and nerves.

The thickness of this layer varies depending on where it is on the body, for example it is thicker on the buttocks, soles of the feet and hands.

Subcutaneous tissue is a vital component of body temperature regulation. It also works as a pillow, so if you fall or hit something with your body, it protects the inside and makes the wound less painful.

Membership

  • 1 Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
  • PMID: 24238601
  • PMCID: PMC4744460
  • DOI: 10.1016 / j. tim 2013.10.001

Free PMC article

  • Search for PubMed
  • Look in the NLM directory
  • Add to search

Author’s

Membership

  • 1 Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.
  • PMID: 24238601
  • PMCID: PMC4744460
  • DOI: 10.1016 / j. tim 2013.10.001

Abstract

Human skin is home to a rich and diverse collection of bacteria, fungi and viruses. Questi microrganismi differiscono tra gli individui e i diversi punti della pelle. The factors responsible for the extreme variability of the skin microbiome are only partially understood, but the results suggest that genetic and environmental influences of the host play an important role. Currently, the constant accumulation of data describing the skin microbiome, combined with experiments aimed at testing the biological functions of surface microbes, has provided new insights into the links between human physiology and the skin microbiome. This review provides some up-to-date information on the skin microbiome and its impact on human health. In particular, we summarize the current understanding of the function of microbial-host interactions on the skin and highlight some unique characteristics that distinguish commensal skin organisms from pathogenic microbes.

Keywords: microbial diversity; microflora; skin diseases; skin health.

Figures

Figure 1. Dynamics of microbial interactions in …

Figure 1. Dynamics of microbial interaction on the skin surface

Microorganisms form complex interaction networks. …

Figure 2. Environment and Interactions Predict Functions …

Figure 2. The environment and interactions predict the functions of the skin microbiome

We all have skin. It covers our whole body and keeps the good things on the inside and the bad things on the outside. But what exactly is leather? We’ll go over the details below, but for starters, the skin is an organ. Just like the heart or the brain. It is an important organ that performs many functions that allow us to live.

Coating system

The skin is part of an important organ system known as the integument system. Coating system składa się ze skóry, włosów, paznokci i gruczołów zewnątrzwydzielniczych.

The functions of the skin

The skin is multipurpose, which means it has many functions. This is our first line of protection against the external environment, it houses one of our five senses, absorbs sunlight for vitamin D and heat, and regulates our internal temperature.

  • Safety – One of the basic functions of the skin is protection. On most of your body, the skin is about 2mm thick. In some areas, such as the eyelids, it is thinner, while in others, such as the soles of the feet, it is much thicker. The skin helps keep harmful things, like germs and dirt, which can cause infections away from our body. It also retains good things like fluids like water and blood.
  • Sense of touch – There is also one of our five senses in the skin: touch. There are thousands of sensors or receptor cells in our skin. These sensors send information to the brain about the things we touch. They can tell the brain if it’s hot, cold, rough, smooth, or painful. Different areas of our body have more receptor cells than others. Our hands, feet and mouth have additional receptors, making these areas even more sensitive. In fact, there are different types of receptor cells for each type of sensation.
  • Temperature control – The skin plays an important role in regulating our body temperature. When we get too hot, it sweats to cool us down. It can also widen the blood vessels in the skin to get more blood near the skin where it can cool down. At the same time, the skin can constrict blood vessels, which helps keep us warm. By controlling blood flow and sweat, the skin regulates our body temperature.

Layers of skin

The skin has three base layers. Each has its own function.

  • Epidermis – Epidermis to zewnętrzna warstwa skóry. Its main function is protection. The cells in the outermost layer of the epidermis constantly die and are replaced by new cells.
  • dermis – Il dermis è più spesso dell’epidermide. Il dermis contiene globuli, follicoli piliferi e ghiandole sudoripare.
  • Ippodermis– Subcutaneous tissue leży pod skórą właściwą i łączy skórę z mięśniami i kośćmi.

See the photo below for more detailed parts of the skin:

How to study the structure and function of human skin

A. Epidermis
B. dermis
C. Ippodermis
D. Blood vessels
E. layer of shoots
1. hair roller
2. Loss of the horn
3. Layer of pigment
4. The spinous layer
5. The base of the level
6. The erector Pili muscle
7. The sebaceous gland
8. Hair follicle
9. Hair wart
10. Nerve fiber
11. Sweat gland
12. Pacini’s body
13. Artery
14. She was alive
15. End of sensory nerves (for touch)
16. Cutaneous papillary
17. Pores of sweat

To experiment:
Skin temperature – How does our skin lower or raise its temperature?

There are many organs in the human body, most of which are essential for the functioning of the body. However, the largest organ is not inside, because the skin is actually the largest organ. Skóra ludzka składa się z trzech warstw, górnej warstwy (naskórka), pod którą znajduje się warstwa podskórna, a następnie dermis. The skin, like most organs, is essential for overall health and has many functions that help and protect our health. This article details the functions of the skin, giving you a clear understanding of the important role skin plays in your daily life.

The basic functions of the skin

How to study the structure and function of human skin

When people think of vital organs, they may not consider the skin as one of them, but that’s not to say that the skin does not play a vital role in human health and well-being. The skin performs many functions as shown below:

1. Safety

The skin helps protect us from many things including dehydration, microorganisms / bacteria, trauma / injury, and ultraviolet radiation / sun damage. It acts as a barrier to the outside world and the fabric is strong enough to protect us. The skin also carries proteins (keratin) and pigments (melanin). Melanin helps protect against UV rays, a photosensitive pigment that ensures we are not excessively damaged by the sun’s rays.

2. Feeling

The skin allows us to feel and recognize pain, touch / pressure and temperature, heat and cold. It is covered with somatic sensory receptors that transmit these sensations as signals to the brain.

3. Temperature regulation

The skin helps release or retain heat. The sweat glands in the skin release sweat into the outer layer of the skin, which then evaporates, reducing the level of heat.

4. Resilience

The skin also interacts with the body’s immune system and helps destroy microorganisms. Skin cells, such as Langerhans cells, phagocytic cells, and epidermal dendritic cells, help with immunity.

5. Allow movement and growth

The skin allows the body to grow and adapts to the individual course of movement. It has springy and recoil properties on all of its layers, meaning it can adapt to growth and movement.

6. Elimination

The skin can also excrete uric acid, ammonia, urea, and excess water. Paying attention to the functions of the skin, moulting is very important. Unwanted human byproducts, such as those listed above, are released through the skin through sweat and sweat glands.

7. Endocrinology

Skóra wspomaga syntezę witaminy D. When the skin is exposed to a nice amount of ultraviolet light, such as the light of the sun (man-made lights also work), the stratum basale and coat of mail layer of the skin produce vitamin D3. This is because a chemical in the skin known as 7-dehydrocholesterol reacts with ultraviolet light. Remember that overexposure to UV rays can be very dangerous and should therefore be moderate.

8. More functions

  • Absorption: The skin is able to absorb essential substances such as nitrogen and oxygen. While we humans still need lungs to breathe, some animal species have skin so advanced that they can absorb all the oxygen they need through their skin.
  • Waterproof: The skin acts as a barrier, ensuring that all essential minerals and nutrients remain in the body. The outer layer of the skin is covered with balms and oils that help protect us from unwanted and excess water.

So, how to take care of your skin

Now that we have covered the functions of the skin, you can definitely see the importance of this organ, so you should think about how to care for it. Here are some steps for good skin care:

1. Protects from the sun

Sun exposure may be great for you, but too many good things will be bad. If you plan to spend a lot of time in the sun, make sure you are protected: wear sunscreen and / or protective clothing to cover sensitive areas and find shade if the sun’s rays become excessive.

2. Avoid smoking

When you smoke, the blood vessels in the outer layer of the skin begin to narrow, which in turn reduces blood flow. This leads to a depletion of the oxygen and nutrients of the skin, all of which are essential to skin health. Smoking also reduces skin strength by damaging elastin and collagen, so it would be wise to quit if you are a smoker.

3. Treat your skin the right way

It’s important to keep your skin clean, but it’s also important to get it right. Avoid long baths and use warm, not hot, water. Also, avoid using harsh soaps filled with chemicals, opting for mild cleansers instead. While drying, pat the skin, do not rub. When shaving, make sure you are gentle and careful and always shave towards your hair. Also try to moisturize to avoid drying out the skin.

4. Eat healthy

Eating plenty of fruit and vegetables will provide you with much needed nutrients, which are beneficial to overall health, as well as skin health. Some studies suggest a close correlation between vitamin C and younger looking skin. A healthy diet will ensure optimal skin functions. Eating processed foods has many negative effects on the body, so it’s best to avoid them.

5. Don’t stress yourself out

High levels of stress can affect us in many negative ways, including our skin. If possible, take steps to manage and control your stress levels to ensure healthy skin as well as a healthy body and mind.

The video below provides detailed information on daily skin care. Learn and adapt this good habit to the optimal functions of the skin: