When you think about it, a mother’s ability to make milk is fascinating.
They go their entire lives without producing any food whatsoever, and then all of a sudden they can support the life of their newborn solely with food from their own body. And that’s all thanks to hormones.
Here is the fascinating biology behind how breast milk is made.
How breast milk is made
Before you start to produce breast milk, you’ll make something else, first — a yellowish, milky fluid called colostrum.
In the second half of pregnancy, your levels of the pregnancy hormone progesterone will spike, triggering the production of colostrum in the process. Colostrum is richer in protein, vitamins, and minerals than regular breast milk and gives newborns a boost in nutrition during their first few days of life.
However, once you start breastfeeding regularly, another hormone kicks in: prolactin. A rise in prolactin signals the body to start producing larger quantities of mature milk three to five days after birth. It’s produced and stored in the breasts by little cavities in the breast tissue called mammary alveoli. When your baby suckles, the milk travels down ducts to your nipples where it leaves your body.
How human breast milk compares to other mammals
All mammals feed their young with their mammary glands, known to us as breasts, though the makeup of that milk varies depending on the animal, Sinnott says. While human newborns are dependent on their caregivers for everything, other mammals must run or walk hours after birth, so their composition of milk is different.
For example, cow’s milk contains more protein and fat than human milk because calves must walk soon after birth and follow their mothers for food and protection. Human babies, on the other hand, are the most immature mammals at birth, and they must be fed frequently, so human milk contains lower levels of protein and fat, Sinnott says.
It’s theoretically possible for men to produce milk
In theory, men could also produce breast milk because, like women, they have milk ducts, mammary tissue, and produce prolactin hormones, says Delicia Shimkoski, RN and IBCLC at Detroit Medical Center’s Hutzel Women’s Hospital.
Moreover, a man could possibly get a baby to latch using a device known as a Supplemental Nursing System (SNS), which contains a long skinny tube that can be taped next to the nipple and supplies either formula or breast milk.
“There have been some reports of men who were able to make breast milk using extensive breast and nipple stimulation,” Shimkoski says. “But the amount of time that it would take to make milk or have a full supply is not known.”
What’s inside breast milk
In order to support your newborn’s development, 100 milliliters (3.4 fluid ounces) of breast milk contains:
- 4.2 grams of fat
- 1.1 grams of protein
- 7.5 grams of carbohydrates
- 30 milligrams of calcium
- Various other vitamins and minerals
Moreover, it’s important to follow a healthy, balanced diet to ensure that your breast milk contains the right amount of vitamins and minerals.
Plus there’s more to breast milk than just its nutrition label. Living cells in breast milk called leukocytes to help fight viruses and bacteria that do not belong in the milk.
Caffeine, alcohol and some medications can make their way into your milk, but for the most part, the tissues involved in milk production act as barriers to ingredients that don’t belong. Nursing moms can consume caffeine in moderation — about two to three cups of coffee a day — while the general rule for alcohol is waiting one hour per drink before feeding the baby.
Many medications are safe to take while breastfeeding, but you should always consult with your provider. Some resources, such as the Infant Risk Center in Texas, as well as the app LactMed, developed by the National Institute of Health, can also tell you the level of risk associated with certain medications.
Madonna has been an icon for so long, it’s easy to take her for granted. Too often, that’s exactly what happens.
With 13 albumsВ and a slew of the most famous singles and music videos of all time, she’s beenВ omnipresent in pop for over three decades. Out of the top eight best-selling musicians of all time, she’s the only female. She’s arguably the first female performer to ever have complete control over every aspect of her image, paving the way for every one of today’s liberated female pop acts.
We should be talking about Madonna with the same reverence we discuss Elvis and the Beatles. Yet given the generally viciousВ response to the press push promoting her new album, it’s clear many have lost sight of her legacy. Madonna fought like hell to build the career she has, scraping her way to the upper echelons from her days as a starving waitress in a closet of a New York apartment. She’s earned her cultural ubiquity and deserves to be respected as the legend she is.
“Like a Virgin.” Before becoming just Madonna, she was Madonna Louise Ciccone, born in a Detroit suburb, theВ third childВ of Silvio Tony Ciccone and Madonna Fortin. Her mother died of breast cancer when Madonna was only 5В years old. It was a massively traumatic event for the young girl, which some of her biographers assert she never quiteВ reconciled.В
In a way, that tragedy may have fueled her drive. “You walk around with a big hole inside you, a feeling of emptiness and longing,” Madonna once toldВ CNN.В “And I think a lot of times that’s why you become an overachiever.”
Madonna got straight A’s in high school, eventually graduatingВ early. AsВ theВ eldestВ girl in a Catholic family of eight children, Madonna had to assume many of her mother’s household responsibilities as she grew. “I saw myself as the quintessential Cinderella,” she once said.
Madonna managed to escape through dance. In high school, she became deeply involved in a ballet academy in Rochester, Michigan. The school’s instructor, Christopher Flynn, took an interest in her, and helped expand her education by taking her to concerts, art galleries and gay clubs in Detroit.
At those gay clubs, Madonna experienced a thrilling sense of liberation. “In school I felt like such a misfit . Because I was a really aggressive woman, guys thought of me as a really strange girl. I didn’t add up for them. I felt inadequate,” Madonna told theВ Advocate in 1991, according to the Independent. “And suddenly when I went to the gay club, I didn’t feel that way any more. I had a whole new sense of myself.”
“I Love New York.” The University of Michigan recognized Madonna’s promise and offered her a dance scholarship in 1976. She attended for two years before she dropped out and moved to New York City to try to make it as a professional dancer.
“New York wasn’t everything I thought it would be. It did not welcome me with open arms,” Madonna wrote in a short memoir for Harper’s Bazaar. “The first year, I was held up at gunpoint. Raped on the roof of a building I was dragged up to with a knife in my back, and had my apartment broken into three times. I don’t know why; I had nothing of value after they took my radio the first time.”
She worked odd jobs to pay her rent wherever she could find them: waitressing, dancing, posing as a nude for art classes вЂ” “Daring them to think of me as anything but a form they were trying to capture with their pencils and charcoal,” she wroteВ for Harper’s Bazaar. “I was defiant. Hell-bent on surviving. On making it. But it was hard and it was lonely, and I had to dare myself every day to keep going.”
“Music.” Madonna kept pushing, trying to make it as a dancer, but it was her voice that really turned heads.В
“People would hear me sing and they’d say, ‘Hey, your voice isn’t bad.’ And I’d say, ‘Oh, really?’ ” Madonna toldВ CNN. “I mean, I never had any training. I never wanted to be a singer.”
But she didn’t pass up the opportunity. She joined a rock band and then formed her own in 1980, even earning a modest record deal. Eventually though, Madonna and Steve Bray, an old boyfriend, broke off from the band to write some ’80s disco and pop tunes. Madonna shopped around one of these songs, “Everybody,” as her first demo.
Eventually “Everybody” found its wayВ into the hands of Mark Kamins, a New York DJ and producer. Kamins threw on the cassette in the club where he DJ’d “and it worked,” he told the Independent. “I’m not saying the place went crazy, but it worked.”В
Kamins helped Madonna produced an improved version and took that tape to Sire Records, who gave the singer her first solo record deal in 1982. Through Sire, Madonna released her self-titled debut in 1983. The album’s third single, “Holiday,” became her breakout hit when it landed in the Billboard’s top 20. Her career was underway.
From there, Madonna did all she could to push artistic boundaries and challenge audience perceptions. She said “fuck” on national television, experimented with erotic and religious choreography вЂ” often at the same time вЂ” and pushed almost every sexual taboo she could think of.
That’s something she’s still doing to this day. She’s taking aim at our culture’s ageism.В
“Because women, generally, when they reach a certain age, have accepted that they’re not allowed to behave a certain way. But I don’t follow the rules. I never did, and I’m not going to start,” she told Rolling Stone. “So if I have to be the person who opens the door for women to believe and understand and embrace the idea that they can be sexual and look good and be as relevant in their 50s or their 60s or whatever as they were in their 20s, then so be it.”
The thinly veiled ageism she suffers is tame compared to some of the backlash she’s brought upon herself over the years. And though her latest album is far from her strongest offering, it’s still pushing into new artistic territory. Madonna has continually bounced back from worse, and she will again, because bitch, she’s Madonna.
As part of Windows customization, you can change the start button icon to anything you want. Follow the steps to add a new start button icon.
In Windows 10, the default Start button icon is the regular old Windows logo. Unlike the old start button icon, the new start icon just changes color when you click on it. If you don’t like how the new start button icon looks and don’t mind going the extra mile in customizing how Windows looks, you can change the start button icon and add your own custom icon.
To do that, follow the below steps.
Important Note: Before making any changes, I recommend you create a restore point or a full Windows backup. If something goes wrong, you can use that restore point or the backup to restore the system to its known good state.
How do I Change Start Button Icon
To change the start button icon, you should follow the below steps.
1. First, download this software and install it like any other application. After installing, launch it by searching for it in the start menu.
2. After launching the software, go to the “Appearance” tab and select the “Windows 10” start menu style and then select the start button orb icon of your choice. By default, the application comes with three different start button icons. Select the one you like. In my case, I’m selecting the Windows 7 style start button icon.
3. Click on the “Apply” and “Ok” buttons to save changes.
As soon as you do that, you should see the modified start button icon on the taskbar.
Add Custom Icon
If you want to add your own custom icon to the start button then you have to go through some hoops. I tried to find some app that makes the whole process easy but couldn’t find one that works in Windows 10. So, you have to manually create the start button icon.
Basically, you have to create a custom start orb image that contains icons for three start button states. i.e, default state, hover state and pressed state.
1. To start off, if you haven’t already, download the icon of your choice. In my case, I’ve downloaded a rocket icon from Flaticon.
Note: If you want three different icons for three different states, then download three icons. As for me, I will slightly change the one icon to represent different states.
2. Once you have the icon, open the image editing software of your choice. In my case, I’m using Photoshop.
3. Now, create a new transparent image exactly in the below dimensions depending on your DPI settings (Settings app → System → Display → Scale and Layout).
- 100% DPI – use 54 x 162 px
- 125% DPI – use 66 x 198 px
- 150% DPI – use 81 x 243 px
3. After creating the blank image, use the built-in ruler to divide the image into three equal parts vertically. The top, middle, and bottom parts represent default, hover, and pressed states.
4. Now, drag and drop your icon(s) into those three divided sections. Make sure they are exactly centered in their own section.
5. After doing that, save the image in PNG format and close the image editing application. In my case, this is the start image orb I created. I’m not that creative so please pardon the horrible icon.
6. Once you have to custom image, open StartIsBack application and click on the little “+” add icon.
7. In the browse window, select the icon you just created and click “Open”.
8. This will add the custom start button icon to the application. Select it and click on the “Apply” and “Ok” buttons to save changes.
If everything goes well, you will see your own custom start button icon in action.
StartIsBack is a paid software that costs $3.99 (one-time fee). The reason I chose this software over other free software like Classic Shell is that they are either not supported any longer, don’t work properly in the latest Windows 10 versions, or way too cumbersome in terms of functionality and usability. Trust me, I tried three different software and none worked better.
If you don’t want to pay for software then you can try Open-Shell, an open-source fork of Classic Shell. This good thing is, you can follow the basic gist of this article to change the start button icon. Then again, do keep in mind that OpenShell adds a lot of functionality to both the Start Menu and File Explorer out of the box. It also completely changes how the start menu looks. You have a spend a fair bit of time tinkering with the settings to disable all those unnecessary features and make it work as you want.
Simply put, if you really want to change the start button icon and don’t want to deal with cumbersome options, spending a few bucks does no harm. If you don’t might exploring and configuring a bunch of options the go with OpenShell.
That is it. If you are stuck or need some help, comment below and I will try to help as much as possible.
In Windows 10 you can pin the installed apps and other settings to the Start Menu. The Windows 10 Start Menu supports four different tile sizes – small, medium, wide and large. Generally, Windows 10 will grab the icon from the target app and display it on the tile. As good as it is, Windows 10 doesn’t provide an easy way to quickly customize the tile icon size or completely change the icon appearing on the tile. BUtah if you ever want to customize or change the tile icon, here is how you can .
Customize Windows 10 Start Menu Tile Icons
To customize Windows 10 Start menu tile icons, we are going to use a free and portable application called TileIconifier. Head over to GitHub and download the file.
Once downloaded, extract the contents of the zip file to any folder of your choice and execute the application.
As soon as you open the application, it scans your system and displays all the apps. By selecting the app in the left pane, you can see the corresponding icon on the right pane. Moreover, you will also find all the controls necessary to customize the tile icons on the left pane.
To change the tile icon, select the app from the left pane and click on the “Change Image” button appearing on the right pane. In my case I want to change the tile icon of Google Keep so that it won’t display the generic Google Chrome icon when I pin it to the start menu.
The above action will open the Icon Selector window. Here you will see all the icons associated with the application. If you want to use a custom icon, select the “Use Custom Image” radio button..
Now, click on the “Browse” button and select your custom icon. In my case I’ve downloaded a custom icon for Google Keep and selected it.
After selecting the custom icon, click on the “OK” button appearing at the bottom of the window.
The above action will take you to the main window. Here you can also customize the background color of the tile by selecting a color from the drop-down menu under the “Background Color” section. In my case I’ve selected a custom blue color.
Once you are done with everything, click on the “Tile Iconify” button.
With the above action, the tile icon will be changed instantly, and you can see the changes in the Start menu.
If you think the tile icon size is too big or too small, you can modify that too. In my case the icon size is too big. To change the icon size, simply click on the Zoom Out or Zoom In button next to the Medium icon or Small icon settings and click on the “Tile Iconify” button to save the changes.
With the above action you’ve successfully changed the tile icon size in the Windows 10 Start menu.
If you ever want to revert back, select the app from the list, and click on the “Remove Iconify” button..
Do comment below sharing your thoughts and experiences about using TileIconifer to change and customize tile icons in the Windows 10 Start menu.
Vamsi is a tech and WordPress geek who enjoys writing how-to guides and messing with his computer and software in general. When not writing for MTE, he writes for he shares tips, tricks, and lifehacks on his own blog Stugon.
Following my Windows 10 upgrade on a Dell laptop I have lost all of my start menu icons for non-Windows or Metro applications. Every single installed application icon now displays as a default icon in the start menu, and along the bottom of the screen when on of the open applications .
What I have found/tried:
- Deleted and recreated the IconCache.db
- In the start menu folder I have noticed that the icons for the shortcuts are missing. When I click to select an icon I get the error “Windows can’t find the file”, then the %systemroot%\installer. It’s pain to go through and manually reset them all. Worse for many applications like Office modules you do not have the option to manually change the icon.
Is there any tool or method to automatically reset all of these. I have noticed that the target .exe files for the shortcuts have the correct icons, and in change icon you can point at the .exe and the icon will be corrected. there must be an automatic way to repair this?
* Please try a lower page number.
* Please enter only numbers.
* Please try a lower page number.
* Please enter only numbers.
I am sorry to know that you are having issues with Start Menu shortcut Icons.
Do not worry, will assist you with the issue.
Run the troubleshooter for Windows apps:
Check for updates for apps from Windows Store and install if you find any.
- Type CMD in Search. Right click it to run as an administrator.
- Type the following 4 commands at the CMD prompt:
dism /online /cleanup-image /restorehealth
- Close the CMD window
- Check to see if the issue is resolved. If not, restart the PC.
Use the System File Checker tool to repair missing or corrupted system files:
Hope this helps in resolving the issue. If the issue persists, do get back to us. We will be happy to assist you.
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I didn’t get much joy from the ideas posted.
I did get some joy by copying the Start Menu stuff from Windows.old. I also changed the locations of the search indexing.
I now have a lot of the icons back in the start menu, I can find many of the applications using search however I’m still regretting the upgrade because of some unresolved issues:
- Some applications still cannot be found using search, eg. Outlook. Even though I have an outlook shortcut on the start menu, and search does find things like “Outlook 2013 shortcut keys”. I’m sure there are more apps that aren’t been found which were in windows 8.
- In the start menu although I have replaced many of the application icons the parent folders do not have icons.
- Biggest issue is that in Windows Explorer known file types are not displaying icons, meaning I have t read the file extension (lucky I have changed the default view to display them).
If I open one of the files it opens it with the correct application meaning some kind of file type association is working, but no icons makes it difficult to quickly see what is what.
I spend a lot of time changing applications and browsing windows explorer so these issues are making wish I could migrate back to windows 8.
24 September 2019
So you’ve got a creative streak a mile wide and you like doing something different every day. Have you thought about starting your own painting business?
If you want to own a business with reasonable startup costs and the potential to earn a great living, consider painting. Starting your own business might sound complicated, but it doesn’t have to be. That’s why we’ve put together this step-by-step look at how to start a painting business.
4 Top Tips for Starting Your Painting Business
1. Know the market you’re painting for.
The first thing to figure out is if there’s enough demand for painting in your area. Are there big neighborhoods or commercial areas near you? If you live in a state with frigid winters, will you be able to pick up enough interior work during the colder months?
Be optimistic – but realistic. To start a successful painting business, you should have a solid understanding of the opportunities in your market.
One great way to get these insights is to talk with other painters. You probably know some successful professional painters in your area already. Don’t be afraid to ask them what they think of the market. Is there more business than they can handle? Is it mostly commercial or residential? Interior or exterior? Maybe there’s even an unfilled niche for specialty painting like faux finishes.
Whatever the answers, as a smart entrepreneur, you should have an in-depth understanding of the market before you invest time, money, and energy into your new painting business.
2. Painting practice makes perfect.
Now let’s take a look at your strengths – and what skills you might want to add.
Painting is a detail-oriented, meticulous profession. For many painters, getting to work outside sometimes is a big perk of the job. It can be physically challenging, too – often done from the top of a ladder. And prepping a space for painting can be a workout in itself – think scraping, patching, and sanding before you even pick up a brush.
Learning how to start a painting business has a fun, creative side, too. For instance, can you recommend beautiful color schemes to your clients? Or are you interested in decorative work like stenciling or even murals? Tap into that artistic streak and build creative skills that will keep you in demand.
The best way to become a great painter, of course, is practice! Before you start drumming up business, ask friends or family if they need painting done. Or, to really learn the ropes, go to work for an established painting business for a while. There’s no better way to learn than with hands-on experience.
One other thing: How are your people skills? You’ll be going into homes and businesses, bidding on jobs, talking with clients, and personally handling any concerns that might arise. You want to present yourself as a true professional: friendly, punctual, and considerate of their time and space. If clients like your personality as well as your work, they’ll be excited to recommend you to others.
3. Schedule some office time.
Your first few months will involve a lot of administrative work. It’s an essential step in starting your own painting business, and if you’re thoughtful about it in the beginning, you’ll save time and frustration when you’re busy with jobs later on.
State and local regulations will be different depending on your location. If you’re not sure where to start, visit the Small Business Administration website. Your town office or city hall also should be able to help. Check out their online resources, or plan an in-person visit and write down the questions you want to ask, so you get the information you need in one visit.
Make time to sort out taxes, invoicing, and a few other items. As you get ready to become a first-rate professional painter, you’ll need to do most (probably all) of the following:
Windows 10 still lets you create desktop shortcuts to applications, files, folders, and even websites. Desktop icons may a little out of fashion, but they’re still useful as part of a nicely organized desktop.
How to Create a Shortcut to an Application
To do this the easy way, open Windows 10’s Start menu. Look for the application you want to use by scrolling through the Apps list at the left side of the menu. If it’s in the tiles list at the right side of the menu, you can also drag it from there.
Once you’ve found it, drag and drop the application’s shortcut from your Start menu to your desktop. You’ll see the word “Link” appear when you’re hovering over the desktop. Release the mouse button to create a link to the program, also known as a desktop shortcut.
Note that you can’t search for the application by name in the Start menu. Windows 10 won’t let you drag and drop anything from the search results. It should, but it doesn’t.
How to Create a Shortcut to a File or Folder
To create a desktop shortcut to a file, first, locate the file somewhere in File Explorer. Hold down the Alt key on your keyboard and then drag and drop the file or folder to your desktop. The words “Create Link in Desktop” will appear. Release the mouse button to create the link.
Holding down Alt is necessary. If you don’t hold down Alt, Windows will show the words “Move to Desktop,” and it will move the folder or file to your desktop rather than simply creating a link.
How to Create a Shortcut to a Website
In Google Chrome or Mozilla Firefox, you can quickly create desktop shortcuts to websites. With a web page open, drag and drop the icon to the left of the address bar—it’s generally a padlock or an “i” in a circle—to the desktop.
This doesn’t work in Microsoft Edge for some reason. Edge won’t let you directly create desktop shortcuts. However, you can create them in Chrome or Firefox, and they’ll automatically open in your default web browser—even if that’s Microsoft Edge.
Working With Your Shortcuts
Whatever type of shortcut you create, you can right-click it afterward, select “Rename,” and change the name to whatever you like.
You can use all the above methods to create shortcuts in other folders, too. Want to create a shortcut to a website or application in your Downloads folder? Go right ahead! Just drag and drop it to your desired location instead of the desktop.
If you don’t see any shortcuts on your desktop, they may be hidden. Right-click the desktop and select View > Show Desktop Icons to unhide them.
You can also choose the size of your desktop icons from here—large, medium, or small. For more size options, position your mouse cursor over the desktop, hold down the Ctrl key, and scroll up and down with your mouse wheel.
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