How to recognize male breast cancer

How to recognize male breast cancer

Mammography is a kind of breast X-ray. Screening mammograms could also be ordered as a routine take a look at to search for the primary indicators of breast cancer. Routine screening exams are used to set up a baseline for what’s regular. They’re additionally a device for early detection, earlier than breast cancer signs seem.

How to recognize male breast cancer

There are two methods to get a mammogram.Digital mammographycreate digital photos whereasdisplay mammography makes a photographic movie. Each strategies use the identical course of to take photos.

The individual present process mammography locations the breasts between two clear plates, which then pinch them collectively to maintain them in place. This ensures flattening of the breast for a pointy picture and prevents blur. The photograph is taken from two angles. The radiologist examines the mammogram for any unusual options that might be an indication of cancer. The entire take a look at takes about 20 minutes. Chances are you’ll really feel discomfort or a bit of ache.

The look of a standard mammogram

Regular mammograms will usually be principally grey with some white parts exhibiting wholesome dense tissue. When the mammogram is whiter, it doesn’t point out a well being drawback. Mammogram photos will fluctuate from one individual to one other since everybody’s breasts are completely different. Wholesome mammograms can even look completely different.

The looks of breast cancer on a mammogram

A lump or lump will seem as a white space targeted on the mammogram. Tumors might be benign or cancerous. A benign tumor just isn’t a well being drawback and will not develop or change form. In lots of circumstances, breast cancers should not cancerous.

The small white grids are usually innocent. The radiologist checks the sample and form as they might be an indication of cancer.

Cancerous tumor

Breast cyst

Dense and oily breast tissue

Regular Breast Tissue Cancerous tumor

Different irregularities

Radiologists all the time search for uncommon issues on a mammogram, in the identical approach they examine for tumors and thick breast tissue.

Different irregularities, które można znaleźć, to:

cyst: They’re small sacs crammed with liquid. Largely they’re straight cysts with a skinny wall and should not cancerous. When it seems to be a easy cyst, additional exams are accomplished to affirm that it’s not cancerous.

calcifications: These are calcium deposits. Massive calcium deposits are referred to as macrocalcifications and are attributable to growing older. Relying on the scale of the macrocalcifications, your physician could carry out additional exams for any indicators of cancer.

Fibroadenomas: These are benign breast tumors. They’re normally spherical and resemble marble. Folks of their 20s and 30s are extra doubtless to develop fibroadenoma. Scar tissue. They normally seem white on a mammogram. When you develop scars in your breasts, inform your physician beforehand.

Mammograms additionally present data on breast density. Folks with dense breasts are barely extra doubtless to develop breast cancer. Dense breasts make it tough to detect abnormalities on a mammogram.

Mammograms are additionally potential after a breast implant or surgical procedure. Nevertheless, it is necessary to have a number of pictures of every breast and it may well take a very long time to examine pictures.

The radiologist normally compares the mammogram with earlier photos. This might help reveal any modifications and conclude if a wierd space might be an indication of cancer.

When to see a health care provider

It’s best to examine your breasts extra usually and seek the advice of your physician if unsure. You might be extra doubtless to discover any modifications in your breasts as a result of you understand what it appears to be like like and the way it feels.

In accordance to the American Cancer Society (ACS), listed below are suggestions for the variety of mammograms ladies ought to have in any respect ages:

• Age between 40 and 44 years. Their selection is annual mammography screening.

• Age between 45 and 54 years. She ought to have a mammogram yearly.

• Ages 55 and up. She will have a mammogram each 2 years.

For ladies with a household historical past of breast cancer, a health care provider could carry out a mammogram earlier than age 40.

Mammography accomplished to detect breast cancer within the early phases is named screening. If somebody notices a symptom or signal of breast cancer, they’ll go to a mammogram to affirm it. That is referred to as a diagnostic mammogram.

Take away

Mammograms are the very best obtainable method for detecting breast cancer or monitoring breast cancer response to remedy. Nevertheless, mammography is not good and it is tough to spot abnormalities in an individual with thick breasts. Mammography appears to be like completely different for every individual, and there’s no irregular or commonplace regular image. Components that seem white on mammograms require additional investigation, however should not normally the results of breast cancer.

How to recognize male breast cancer

Anatomy of the male breast. The nipple and areola are proven on the skin of the breast. Lymph nodes, fatty tissue, ducts and different components of the within of the breast are additionally proven.

© 2011 Teresa Winslow LLC. U. S. Govt. has sure rights. Used with permission. Contact the artist on www. Teresewinslow. com exterior license icon.

Anatomy of the male breast. The nipple and areola are proven on the skin of the breast. Lymph nodes, fatty tissue, ducts and different components of the within of the breast are additionally proven.

© 2011 Teresa Winslow LLC. U. S. Govt. has sure rights. Used with permission. Contact the artist on www. Teresewinslow. com exterior license icon.

Though it’s uncommon, males can get breast cancer. Dowiedz się o objawach raka piersi u mężczyzn i o rzeczach, które mogą zwiększać ryzyko.

Breast cancer is extra widespread in ladies, however males can even get breast cancer. About 1 in 100 breast cancer identified in america happens in males.

The commonest varieties of breast cancer in males are the identical in ladies –

  • Invasive ductal carcinoma. Cancer cells develop outdoors the ducts in different components of the breast tissue. Invasive cancer cells or cells can even unfold metastasis,to different components of the physique.
  • Invasive Lobular Carcinoma. Cancer cells unfold from the lobules to close by breast tissues. These invasive cancer cells can even spreadto different components of the physique.
  • ductal cancerin place(DCIS) is a breast illness that may lead to breast cancer. Cancer cells are discovered solely within the lining of the ducts and haven’t unfold to different breast tissues.

What are the signs?

The commonest signs of breast cancer in males are:

  • Lump or swelling within the breast.
  • Purple or scaly pores and skin on the breasts.
  • Breast pores and skin irritation or dimpling.
  • Discharge from the nipples.
  • Nipple ache or ache within the nipple space.

These signs can happen with different situations that aren’t cancer. In case of worrying signs, seek the advice of your physician instantly.

What are the danger components?

A number of components can enhance a person’s probability of getting breast cancer. Having danger components doesn’t imply that you should have breast cancer.

  • Getting older. Breast cancer danger will increase with age. Most breast cancers begin after age 50.
  • Genetic mutations.Hereditary modifications (mutations) in some genes, reminiscent of BRCA1 and BRCA2, enhance the danger of breast cancer.
  • Household historical past of breast cancer.A person’s danger of growing breast cancer is increased if an in depth member of the family has had breast cancer.
  • Therapy with radiotherapy.Males who’ve had chest radiation remedy have the next danger of growing breast cancer.
  • Hormonal remedy.Medicines containing estrogen (a hormone that helps within the growth and upkeep of feminine sexual traits) which were used up to now to deal with prostate cancer enhance the danger of breast cancer in males.
  • Klinefelter’s syndrome.Klinefelter’s syndromethe exterior icon is a uncommon genetic illness by which the male has an additional X chromosome. This may lead to the physique producing increased ranges of estrogen and decrease ranges of androgens (hormones that assist develop and keep male sexual traits).
  • Situations affecting the testicles.Harm, swelling, or surgical procedure to take away the testicles can enhance the danger of breast cancer.
  • Liver illness.Cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver can decrease androgen ranges and enhance estrogen ranges in males, rising the danger of breast cancer.
  • Obese and weight problems.Older males who’re chubby or overweight have the next danger of growing breast cancer than males of regular weight.

How to recognize male breast cancer

Speak to your physician about your loved ones historical past of cancer.

What can I do to scale back the danger?

If a number of members of your loved ones have had breast or ovarian cancer, or one in every of your loved ones members has a identified BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, share this data along with your physician. Your physician could refer you for genetic counseling. In males, mutations within the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can enhance the danger of breast cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer.

If genetic testing reveals you could have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, your physician will clarify what you must do to detect cancer early when you develop it.

All males can scale back their danger by sustaining a wholesome weight and exercising often.

How is breast cancer handled?

The remedy for breast cancer is identical for males as it’s for ladies. It is dependent upon how large the tumor is and the way far it has unfold. Therapy could embody surgical procedure, chemotherapy, radiation remedy, hormone remedy, and focused remedy. For extra data, see the Nationwide Cancer Institute’s Male Breast Cancer Therapy. out of doors icon

How to recognize male breast cancer

Most individuals suppose ladies have breast cancer, however about one in 1,000 identified circumstances have been with a person.

Dr Umar Butt, an oncologist surgeon at Medical Metropolis McKinney, instructed KERA’s Sam Baker that almost all males are unaware or discover it onerous to imagine they’ve breast cancer, however mentioned it is vitally comparable to what cross ladies.


How breast cancer differs in males

The principle distinction is that cancer in males tends to seem at a later stage and is extra aggressive. It normally goes to their lymph nodes, which is the second stage within the chest the place we name it localized illness.

And when it has moved from the chest wall or breast wall to the armpit, to the lymph nodes, and when the cancer has unfold from one place to one other, it’s referred to as regionally superior.

Subsequently, the vast majority of male breast cancer sufferers are regionally superior and have moved from a single web site. They’ve jumped to one other station and after that, we name it metastatic illness, which signifies that it spreadto different components of the physique.

Can Male Breast Cancer Be Detected Earlier?

Nevertheless, they’ll conduct a self-examination of the chest and breasts. Be certain they haven’t any lumps or lumps or something that’s inflicting you ache. Moreover, there isn’t a nipple withdrawal or oozing from the nipple web site.

Threat components for male breast cancer:

  • Household historical past: Sufferers who’ve had a historical past of breast cancer in one in every of their first diploma kinfolk could endure genetic testing, which may then discover genes that have an effect on male breast cancer.
  • To smoke
  • Alcohol
  • Weight problems
  • Sure varieties of medicine, particularly in sufferers with prostate cancer. They use estrogen-based therapies.

Age too: Males over the age of 65 have the next danger for a wide range of causes:

  • First, testosterone ranges drop and the physique has extra fats deposits that may act as estrogen shops. The extra estrogen now we have in our system, the danger of growing sure cancers, together with breast cancer, will increase.
  • Secondly, some genetic modifications can happen in some cells that may lead to these cancers.

Therapy choices:

  • Operation. And if we are able to get sufferers to have surgical procedure, that is normally their greatest probability because it means we’re engaged on a restoration via a mastectomy or lumpectomy.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation.

The one distinction from treating ladies is that males do not have a number of breast tissue. Generally a lumpectomy entails the elimination of your complete tumor. So most sufferers would go for a mastectomy.

Do GPs take into consideration this in bodily exams as a lot as they need to?

The highlights of the interview have been barely edited for readability.

Do you could have a tip? E mail Sam Baker at sbaker @ kera. org. You’ll be able to observe Sam on Twitter @srbker.

KERA Information is made potential by the generosity of our members. When you really feel this software is efficacious, think about making a tax deductible reward as we speak. Thanks.

male breast cancer is accountable for about 1% of all breast cancer circumstances? Nevertheless, the truth that males can even get breast cancer just isn’t totally identified.

Whereas surprisingly sufficient, once we be taught that males, like ladies, are susceptible to breast cancer, you may be shocked to be taught that greater than 1,800 males develop breast cancer in america yearly. There is no such thing as a query that girls are extra susceptible to breast cancer, however as a result of males even have breast tissue, they’ll additionally develop breast cancer. Threat components embody excessive estrogen ranges, weight problems, age, alcohol abuse, and radiation publicity.

Why Ought to You Know About Indicators & Signs of Breast Cancer for Males

Imparare i segni ei sintomi del male breast cancer This is essential. It is because most males who’re identified with breast cancer early have an excellent probability of restoration and restoration. By studying about indicators and signs of you’ll give you the option to hold a examine on your self and in case you discover any uncommon indicators reminiscent of a lump in breast, you’ll be able to all the time search a health care provider’s evaluate.

Identification & Varieties Of Breast Cancer in Males

The commonest symptom of breast cancer in males is a thickening of the breast part. You may as well name it a lump within the breast. Different signs that may assist diagnose breast cancer embody redness across the nipple, peeling of the nipples, a crease / dimple within the pores and skin, a slight dimple within the nipple, and nipple discharge.

The principle explanation for breast cancer just isn’t but identified, however there are various genetic and exterior components that may trigger itmale breast cancer. A few of these causes embody Klinefelter’s Syndrome, cirrhosis of the liver, having feminine kinfolk with a historical past of breast cancer and radiation remedy.

There are principally 4varieties of male breast cancer particularly cystosarcoma phylloides, ductile sarcoma, Paget’s Illness and ductile sarcoma in place. Whereas Ductile sarcoma is the cancer that begins within the breast ducts after which unfold across the surrounding tissues, the Ductile sarcoma in place additionally begins with breast ducts however doesn’t unfold. Likewise, it’s referred to as cancer within the connective tissues that help the thoracic ducts Phyllodes cytosarcomaand the cancer within the pores and skin of the nipple is known as Paget’s illness.

Trattamento del male breast cancer choices are sometimes comparable to that of feminine breast cancer and embody radiation remedy, chemotherapy, medicine, surgical procedure and hormone remedy.

Primi segni di male breast cancer


Discoloration across the nipple space or discoloration of the nipple itself is among the most typical and early signs of male breast cancer.


Inconsistency, lack of uniformity or irregularity in breast tissues is one other early signal of male breast cancer. In case a person notices some sort of indentation within the form or type of the chest, it may be an indication of male breast cancer. Generally the drop is sort of small. Subsequently, it is vitally necessary to pay shut consideration when inspecting the tissues across the chest.

Altri possibili sintomi di male breast cancer


Tenderness and ache within the tissues of the chest are an indication that shouldn’t be ignored. Nevertheless, when you train, the tenderness of the tissues may additionally be due to this.

The dimple of the pores and skin:

If the pores and skin surrounding the nipple space begins to “wrinkle” or “dimple”, it is suggested that you simply see your physician instantly. There’s a excessive likelihood that dimpled pores and skin could have a cancerous tumor underneath it.

peeling and redness:

It’s one other essential signal of male breast cancer. Irregular peeling or redness across the breast space, particularly when the pores and skin appears to be like like snakeskin or begins to peel off, could also be breast cancer signal. Pores and skin redness is usually an early signal of male breast cancer.

Inversion of the nipple:

When you’ve seen that your nipple is getting inverted, it might be a potential breast cancer signal. It’s essential that you simply examine along with your physician instantly.


Formation of lumps in male breast are simply detectable and they’re fairly a harmful signal of male breast cancer. As a result of in males, fats is way lower than that of a girl’s breast, lumps are simply detectable. If the tumor has grown, you’ll discover a protrusion. There’s a excessive likelihood that this lump is cancerous and you must see your physician immediately. Your physician may additionally suggest a lumpectomy.

Lumpectomy is a reasonably widespread process for detecting breast cancer, and also you should be fortunate in case your breast cancer is in its early phases. A lumpectomy process by which the lump is partially or utterly faraway from underneath the pores and skin. If detected early, it may well forestall the unfold of cancer.

Though, presence of lumps could not essentially be a breast cancer signal however it is vitally necessary to seek the advice of a health care provider and get your situation identified. If it is not breast cancer, you will have it gynecomastia, a benign and non-cancerous situation.

Nipple discharge

Discharge from male nipples is undoubtedly an irregular symptom and shouldn’t be ignored underneath any circumstances. When you discover discharge out of your nipples, let your physician bodily look at your nipples underneath a microscope and see if any cancerous cells are current.

Rilevazione del male breast cancer

Breast self-exam: begins with the best chest. Lie down and place your proper hand over your head. Now begin inspecting the torso space along with your center three fingers. The fingers ought to transfer across the whole chest space in small round motions. Be sure you really feel your whole breast and search for indicators of lumps or lumps. Repeat the identical for the opposite breast. When you discover any lumps, contact your physician instantly.

Different exams

Your physician could suggest digital mammography. It’s a quite common step taken by medical doctors for detection of male breast cancer. Throughout this course of, the physician will look at a computerized chest X-ray and examine for irregular development or the presence of lumps within the chest. If irregular tissue is detected, a tissue pattern might be examined.

Ultrasounds screening is one other methodology used for detection of male breast cancer. This methodology can be referred to as ultrasound as a result of high-frequency sound waves are used throughout screening.

14 October 2015

How to recognize male breast cancer

Is male breast cancer widespread?

What are the signs?

I sintomi del male breast cancer sono simili a quelli delle donne – lumps, sore nipple, discharge and redness or ache across the nipple. When you really feel a lump or thickened tissue, notably underneath the nipple, it’s necessary not to ignore it – but it surely’s additionally necessary not to panic.

This might be the casegynecomastia, that’s, non-cancerous swelling of the breast tissue attributable to an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and testosterone. Gynecomastia usually happens at one in every of three life phases – infancy, puberty, and later in life, usually after age 60. Although childhood situations shouldn’t be ignored, they’re extra usually associated to that hormone imbalance and will resolve with out remedy by the age of 18.

Regardless, the indicators of gynecomastia – lump, hardened or thickened tissue, or ache across the nipple – are comparable to male breast cancer signs. They deserve your consideration and needs to be evaluated by your physician. Male breast cancer, as with most cancer, has higher remedy choices and higher outcomes the sooner it’s caught.

How to do a self-assessment?

We don’t suggest the month-to-month self-test for males or ladies. Self-examination has not been proven to scale back breast cancer deaths. That mentioned, we promote self-awareness by figuring out what your physique is like and reporting any modifications to your physician.

When you have the signs and need to decide whether or not it’s male breast cancer or gynecomastia, mammograms normally reveal the distinction.

What causes male breast cancer?

We’re nonetheless attempting to establish what causes males to get breast cancer. We do know that it may well have a genetic part and that male breast cancer is extremely related to a specific gene mutation referred to as BRCA 2. The gene, which might be handed each to daughters and sons, has been tied to increased dangers for each breast cancer and prostate cancer. One choice to think about – and it’s beneficial for males identified with breast cancer − is genetic testing. Youngsters of males who develop breast cancer have a a lot increased danger of growing breast cancer if they’ve a genetic mutation.

As with all uncommon illness, expertise in diagnosing and treating male breast cancer turns into necessary when a affected person is choosing care. We’ve handled circumstances of male breast cancer and offered these sufferers with numerous remedy choices. Therapy choices for males with breast cancer are principally the identical as for ladies, as are the reactions: Let’s diagnose and remedy it.

When you have questions on male breast cancer, don’t be ashamed. Name us anonymouslyon the Cancer Reply Line at 214-736-9022 or write us your questions.

“ After I was identified, I had no thought. I believed it was a girl’s illness, and too many different males imagine that to at the present time. ”

You’ll hear this sentiment echoed within the phrases of many male breast cancer survivors however statistics present that breast cancer isn’t only for ladies.

Whereas breast cancer amongst males within the U. S is way much less doubtless than that of their feminine counterparts, male breast cancer does account for roughly 1% of breast cancer diagnoses, with round 2,300 new circumstances yearly as reported by the CDC. These numbers replicate the pretty latest enhance within the probability of the common male being identified, which has gone from 1 in 1000 to 1 in 833.

Of this small share, males are more likely to be identified later, with superior illness, extra doubtless to be handled, and extra doubtless to die inside 5 years of prognosis.

Research have proven that male mortality charges are increased than feminine mortality charges in any respect phases of breast cancer, in accordance to the JAMA Oncology present. At current, there are minimal pointers for male breast cancer screening, and it’s not usually that you simply hear a reminder for males to carry out their very own self-exam. Have you ever ever seen a T. V. advert prompting your husband, father, or brother to examine their chests after the age of 50? Didn’t suppose so.

At prognosis, the identical examine discovered that advanced-stage breast cancer is extra doubtless in males (5.8% in males versus 3.8% in ladies), telling us that the cancer is discovered later within the day. its growth.

Loopy, proper? We agree.

Not solely is that this seen later after such ranges of development have been reached, however variations in medical options reminiscent of cancer sort and stage, age at prognosis, and kind of remedy additionally contribute to the 63 distinction in mortality. %, which is important. In a JAMA Oncology examine, the five-year total survival price between women and men after being identified with breast cancer differed by almost 10 %. The survival price of males with breast cancer was 77.6% whereas ladies recorded 86.4% in contrast.

This text was co-authored by Dr. Joshua Ellenhorn. Joshua Ellenhorn, MD, is an authorized surgeon with superior coaching in cancer surgical procedure, minimally invasive surgical procedure, and robotic surgical procedure. He has personal apply at Cedars-Sinai Medical Middle in Los Angeles, California, and is a nationally acknowledged chief in surgical procedure, cancer analysis, and surgical schooling. Dott. Ellenhorn has educated greater than 60 surgical oncologists and has spent over 18 years in apply on the Metropolis of Hope Nationwide Medical Middle, the place he was a professor and the chief of the Division of Common and Oncologic Operation. Dr. Ellenhorn performs the next surgical procedures: gallbladder surgical procedure, hernia surgical procedure, colon cancer, pores and skin cancer and melanoma, abdomen cancer and pancreatic cancer. He earned his Ph. D. from Boston College College of Drugs, acquired fellowships from the College of Chicago and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Middle, and accomplished his residency in surgical procedure on the College of Cincinnati.

This text was considered 9,808 occasions.

Though breast cancer primarily impacts ladies, it’s potential for males to develop breast cancer as nicely. Il male breast cancer rappresenta fino all’1% dei tumori al seno diagnosticati ogni anno. È importante essere consapevoli dei segni e dei sintomi che possono indicare un possibile male breast cancer e conoscere i take a look at diagnostici che potresti ricevere se tu e / o il tuo medico siete preoccupati. The most effective factor you are able to do in case you are involved about breast cancer is to see your physician in the end for a bodily examination, as early prognosis is the important thing to profitable remedy. [1] X Skilled supply

Whereas breast cancer primarily impacts ladies, roughly 2,500 males are identified with the illness every year in america.

The five-year survival price for male breast cancer is barely decrease than for feminine breast cancer. There are numerous completely different causes for the low survival price. One in every of these is the affected person’s age and associated well being challenges. On the time of prognosis, the common age for a male breast cancer affected person is 67, versus age 62 for females.

As well as, male breast cancer is usually extra superior when it’s identified. The tumor tends to unfold and cancer is extra doubtless to unfold to regional lymph nodes. Medical doctors attribute these later diagnoses to a basic lack of know-how of male breast cancer, in addition to the absence of widespread screening for the illness.

Varieties of male breast cancer

Like feminine breast cancer, male breast cancer might be categorized by the molecular receptor standing of the cancer cells.

Receptors are molecules that cancer cells produce on their floor. They’ll bond with, or recognize, particular proteins and hormones within the affected person’s physique. Scientists have recognized the receptors that drive breast cancer cell development once they connect to a selected protein or hormone. Interrupting this bond with cancer medicine can gradual or cease the illness’s development.

The three essential varieties of breast cancer receptors (in each women and men) are:

  • HER2-positive protein that promotes cell development and multiplication. HER2 optimistic tumors have considerably increased HER2 protein ranges than regular.
  • A optimistic hormone receptor that acknowledges the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
  • Triple-negative, which doesn’t recognize HER2, estrogen or progesterone. Since there isn’t a molecular receptor to interrupt it, it’s the most tough subtype of breast cancer to deal with.

About 90% of male breast cancers have hormone receptors, and one other 9% are each hormone receptor and HER2 optimistic.

Trattamento del male breast cancer

Therapy for male breast cancer may be very comparable to remedy for feminine breast cancer. Choices embody surgical procedure, chemotherapy, radiation remedy, and focused remedy. Due to the small breast measurement, most male breast cancer sufferers who get surgical procedure endure a full mastectomy (the elimination of your complete breast) as a substitute of a lumpectomy (the elimination of simply the tumor and a small quantity of surrounding tissue).

Fattori di rischio di male breast cancer

Something that will increase the danger of growing cancer is a danger issue. Medical doctors have recognized a number of danger components for male breast cancer.

  • BRCA mutations: Regular BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes inhibit tumor development. Folks with a mutated BRCA gene have the next danger of growing breast cancer. Between 8%-15% of male breast cancer sufferers have a BRCA mutation, in contrast to 5%-10% of feminine breast cancer sufferers. As well as to inflicting breast cancer, BRCA mutations are additionally related to ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, and melanoma.
  • Household historical past of breast cancer: Breast cancer danger has doubled for males who’ve a mum or dad, sibling, or little one with the situation.
  • Age: As males become old, their danger of growing breast cancer will increase.
  • Weight problems
  • Gynecomastia or breast enlargement attributable to hormonal imbalances or sure drugs
  • Radiation publicity, usually as a part of treating one other cancer
  • Race: African-American males have the next danger of male breast cancer than non-Hispanic white males.