How to make bio diesel

You have found the most informative site on the internet to learn how to make your own biodiesel at home as a hobby. This is a hobby that can save you money and help save the world from global warming. Making biodiesel is a lot of fun, like having an adult chemistry kit,

Introduction to Biodiesel

What is biodiesel? How is it made and used? Can i use biodiesel in my car?

5 tests every homebrewer should know

While there are dozens of tests available for home brewers, there are only five that every biodiesel home brewer needs to know about.

Biodiesel tutorial

      • Introduction to Biodiesel
      • ingrediants
      • WVO collection
      • WVO drying
      • Biodiesel recipes
      • Winter biodiesel
      • Biodiesel safety
      • Biodiesel processors
      • Apple seeds
      • Processor updates
      • Recovery of methanol
      • Dry cleaning biodiesel
      • Washing with water
      • Dealing with by-products
      • Biodiesel chemistry
      • Quality test

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Biodiesel: food for thoughtwas produced for the Big Bend Economic Development Council with a grant from the US Department of Agriculture – Rural Development.

Produced and directed by Kathy Kiefer
JACOL Filmworks, LLC
Soap Lake, WA 98851

Compatibility with biodiesel

Does my car run on biodiesel? Should I convert my car to biodiesel? Find out here.

Biodiesel in winter

Tips for producing and using biodiesel in winter. How to make biodiesel work even on the coldest days.

Enzymatic biodiesel

Commercial biodiesel producers use enzymes as catalysts to make biodiesel from oils with a high FFA content without the need for strong acids.

WVO drying for Biodiesel

The most common cause of problems in biodiesel production is water in crude oil.

Plans of biodiesel dosing stations

After making the biodiesel, you want to pump it into your vehicle. This article provides good instructions on how to build your own multi-drum biodiesel dosing station.

Biodiesel recipes and Processes

There is more than one way to produce biodiesel. This section contains articles that detail the various methods used by hobbyists.

_ Apple grains

Apple seeds Biodiesel Reactor is a water heater based processor design that anyone can build.

Biodiesel safety

This section provides tips on how to make biodiesel in the safest way possible.

Biodiesel processors

Learn about the different types of biodiesel processors in this section on processors.

WARNING

The production of biodiesel requires the use of flammable, toxic and highly corrosive liquids to produce the fuel. No matter what precautions you take or what equipment you use, making biodiesel will never be a safe hobby and can put you, your property, and your family at risk of injury or even death. Produce biodiesel at your own risk.

How to make biodiesel – introduction

How to make bio dieselBiodiesel is usually made using chemicals to change organic oil for a catalyst and alcohol (most people use ethanol or methanol). Ethanol is less dangerous, although methanol is not that expensive. Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda) or potassium hydroxide can be used as catalysts, although sodium hydroxide is often less expensive. The process of converting oil into biodiesel is called transesterification. The chemical reaction that occurs during this process “breaks down” the oil into esters and glycerol. As the process progresses, the glycerin sinks to the bottom of the container, leaving the alkyl esters behind, the glycerol is then drained, and the remaining overhead is biodiesel. The biodiesel is then washed frequently to remove any remaining contaminants and then can be used to power an unmodified diesel engine.

It is worth noting that pure biodiesel can dissolve natural rubber pipes and gaskets. Most new diesel engines have synthetic hoses and gaskets, but older engines may require new hoses and gaskets to be fitted. Diesel injector pumps don’t generally have rubber parts indirect contact with the fuel, so it is usually easy to replace hoses and seals without any major hassles. Old natural rubber hoses should not be affected if a diluted fuel mixture of 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel (referred to as “B20”) is used.

It is often advisable to make biodiesel from fresh oil to understand and appreciate the processes before moving on to producing larger batches from waste oils. Biodiesel usually takes anywhere from several days to a week from start to finish to produce one batch. Most people who make biodiesel produce between 20 and 100 gallons at a time in a batch process.
Here is a breakdown of the typical time frames from start to finish:

  • START
  • Collect Oil – 1-2 hours
  • Filter Oil – 1-2 hours (depends on amount of oil)
  • Titration Of Oil – 10-15 minutes
  • Transferring Oil To Processor – 10-20 minutes
  • Heating Oil – 1-4 hours (depends on amount of oil, voltage & wattage of element)
  • Making Methoxide – 5-20 minutes (depends on amount of methanol and catalyst used)
  • Mixing Methoxide Into Oil – 20-30 minutes
  • Mixing Oil & Methoxide – 2-3 hours
  • Settling Oil – 8-10 hours (usually overnight)
  • Draining Glycerine – 5-10 minutes
  • Transferring Biodiesel To Wash Tank -10-20 minutes
  • First Mist Wash – 2-3 hours
  • Second Mist Wash – 2-3 hours

How to make bio dieselBiodiesel can be produced in any form, from small 2-liter soda bottles to a processor complex with separate tanks for methanol processing, washing, blending, decanting and filtration. Getting the equipment is relatively easy. Complete processing equipment can be made to order using the plans available on the web or by purchasing ready-made kits ready for assembly. Most people start by making small batches with minimal hardware and then gradually move up to large batches using large processors built specifically for biodiesel production.

Many home brewers purchase various standard processors designed to process biodiesel or make their own custom processors from kits or plans available on the Internet. Professionally built processors can cost anywhere from 500 to several thousand dollars. Kits can be purchased for DIY from several online retailers for as little as $ 200, up to extended systems complete with methanol recovery capacitors.

Instructions on how to make biodiesel

How to make bio dieselThis idea needs to be said again… Start with the process, not with the processor. A processor, such as the homemade 250-liter (66-gallon) unit on the left, comes next. Start with fresh unused oil, not with waste vegetable oil (WVO) that also comes later. Get familiar with the process, start by preparing a small 1 liter test batch of biodiesel using fresh, fresh oil. You can use a spare blender or, rather, make a simple test mini-processor. Go on, step by step. Study all you can. One of the best resources on the web for finding detailed instructions (it’s free) is a site called Journey to Forever.

The Ultimate Guide – Encyclopedia of Biodiesel Manufacturing

How to make bio dieselThe Biodiesel Encyclopedia is by far the best book on the market (and we’ve looked at a lot) on biodiesel production. David and Tram are CEOs of International Biofuel Solutions and David is a lecturer at technical universities in Vietnam and Thailand. Over 200 pages of detailed instructions with dozens of illustrations, drawings and photos to help you. Whether you are a beginner or a biodiesel pro, this book is truly a must!

Some links to detailed methods when thinking about how to make biodiesel.

How to make bio diesel

How to make bio diesel

Hemp biodiesel is a real product and is very sustainable as a solution to our dependence on fossil fuels. Hemp biodiesel, if it is economical and efficient to produce. It has been around for a long time, as can be seen from this 1990 statement by Hugh Downs.

“Once upon a time, hemp seemed to have a promising future as the cornerstone of the industry. When Rudolph Diesel produced his famous engine in 1896, he assumed that the diesel engine would run on a variety of fuels, most notably vegetable oils and seeds. Rudolph Diesel, like most engineers of his time, believed that vegetable fuels were better than crude oil. Hemp is the most efficient vegetable. In the 1930s, Ford Motor Company also saw a future in biomass fuels. Ford successfully operated a biomass conversion plant, including hemp, at its Iron Mountain, Michigan plant. Ford engineers extracted methanol, coal, tar, pitch, ethyl acetate and creosote. Tutti gli ingrediants essenziali per un’industria moderna e ora forniti dalle industrie petrolifere”.Hugh Downs, 1990

How to make biodiesel hemp
Method of titration

Safety first: wear protective clothing and goggles. This is a serious business and is not recommended for a “weekend project”. This process serves only as a reference to what qualified biodiesel producers would do.

Measure the content of free fatty acids in the oil: Mix 1ml of oil with 10ml of isopropyl alcohol = 2 drops of Phenothalate solution (available at hobby stores from chemical kit suppliers). Add 0.1% caustic soda solution (1 g caustic soda per liter of water) drop by drop until the solution remains pink for 10 seconds. (20 drops = 1 ml) Record the milliliters of 0.1% lye solution used.

Methanol You will need 200ml of methanol per liter of hemp seed oil. Methanol may be purchased as Drigas available at most automotive stores, read the label for methanol. Also Methanol is available from racing stores. Avoid methanol from the hardware store (wood alcohol) as the mat contains excessive water content.

sodium methoxide For each liter of hemp seed oil, one gram of granular solid lye is required for each ml of 0.1% lye solution used for titration of free fatty acids plus 3.5 grams. Completely dissolve the appropriate amount of lye in methanol (Red Devil Lye can be purchased at the grocery store). Ta połączona mieszanina tworzy sodium methoxide.

Mixer The type of stirrer depends on the lot size. An electric drill and paint mixer on an extended shaft work well in a 5-gallon bucket.

Transesterification: After the leaching catalyst is completely dissolved to leave no deposits, the oil can be added to the methanol lye mixture while stirring. The mixture first becomes denser and then thinner as the reaction proceeds. Collect samples every 5 minutes with a dropper tube or clear container. The blend will separate into a top layer of light biodiesel and a bottom layer of darker glycerin, soap and catalyst. Continue mixing for 30-60 minutes until the yield remains constant. So stop mixing. Go for lunch. It will split into two separate levels upon your return. You did! Leave the mixture for at least 8 hours. Pour and store the top layer of biodiesel in another container. A clear container with a funnel bottom is useful.

FlushingA: The raw biodiesel you just made may contain catalyst, alcohol and glycerin residues which can cause engine problems, so for long term engine reliability this raw fuel should be washed with water. Rinse first gently and then more vigorously with water until the rinse water is clear and the pH of the rinse water is the same as that of the feed water. Settled, decant.

Drying: The water in the biodiesel becomes cloudy, so heat it carefully. At a temperature of 100 C, most of the water melts and sinks to the bottom. This water must be completely removed from the bottom of the container before heating it to a higher temperature.

FAILURE TO REMOVE THIS WATER BEFORE HEATING FURTHER WATER MAY RESULT IN A VIOLENT EXPLOSION OF THE HOT LIQUID!

Once all the water is removed, heat the biodiesel to 300 f (150 degrees Fahrenheit) until completely dry. Cool, filter and store the biodiesel in a well-labeled, dry and closed container. 100% HEMP FUEL FOR DIESEL (HEMP OIL METHYL ESTER – DOMESTIC FUEL)

This fuel can be mixed in any ratio with diesel fuel. Torque tests show full power with up to 75% reduction in soot and particles. No engine modification is required to burn biodiesel.

The use of non-food corn oil (NFG) in biodiesel has increased tremendously over the past two years. Corn oil biodiesel is eligible for a D4 RIN under the renewable fuel standard (RFS), and California’s low carbon fuel standard (LCFS) has assigned it a carbon intensity (CI) value of 4. The combination of these two credits can potentially add another $1.26 (at $0.45/D4 RINs & $50/metric ton/LCFS credit) of value to each gallon of biodiesel made from NFG corn oil feedstock. However, the definition of NFG maize oil eligible for RFS and LCFS credits is very narrow (more under LCFS than RFS). Without meeting stringent regulatory requirements, it is questionable whether the final fuel is eligible for loans.

According to the LCFS, biodiesel made from NFG corn oil qualifies for a CI value of 4 as the energy required to dry the still grain in the ethanol plant after corn oil extraction is much less and this energy saving is attributed to the corn oil followed by the resulting biodiesel. However, there are several important assumptions that support the low IC of NFG corn oil biodiesel. First, it is assumed that the cage is completely dried in the ethanol plant, because if it were not dried, there would be no energy savings in the corn oil. Second, it assumes that the ethanol plant selling corn oil does not use method 2 and reduces its CI of ethanol based on lower energy consumption as this would double-count.

Finally, the California Air Resource Board used only data provided by Greenshift Corp to model the path of corn oil biodiesel. for your oil extraction technology. If an ethanol factory uses a different technology to extract the oil, this raises uncertainty that the energy emissions associated with the extraction process are lower than those used in the model. According to the LCFS, all applicants must be able to demonstrate that they achieve better or equal energy savings than the published route estimates, otherwise they should not use the published CI values.

Federal rules are not quite as restrictive as California’s LCFS; however, they also have a strict definition of what qualifies and what doesn’t. Under the RFS, NFG Corn Oil Biodiesel qualifies for federal credits if the oil is produced in a dry corn ethanol plant by extraction from a grain byproduct. There are no credits for renewable fuel from corn oil from fractionation in a dry mill ethanol plant or from wet ground corn oil.

Both RFS and LCFS very clearly define the responsibility for compliance on the regulated entities that use the loans. If the corn oil used in the production of corn oil biodiesel does not meet the requirements outlined above, the credit values ​​for the final fuel could potentially be questioned. Most regulated parties who take the LCFS or RIN credit for corn oil biodiesel don’t trace the origin of the corn oil when they purchase biodiesel. They probably should.

DRick Da Tech

Scopri qui quali ingrediants sono necessari per fare il biodiesel e come ottenerli.

Biodiesel catalysts

A key ingredient in the homebrew biodiesel recipe is the catalyst. The most commonly used are sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide. The glycerin and soap that precipitate from the sodium hydroxide reaction will be solid, while the soap and glycerin that precipitate from the potassium hydroxide reaction will be liquid.

Methanol for Biodiesel

Methanol or wood grain alcohol is the simplest form of alcohol. It is both poisonous and flammable. Wykorzystywany jest w wyścigach, dzięki czemu jest dostępny zarówno w punktach zaopatrzenia chemicznego, jak i u dystrybutorów paliw. It burns without a visible flame in sunlight and is the most expensive ingredient for most home brewers.

Oil for the production of biodiesel

There is a large variety of fats and oils used to make biodiesel. This article discusses the properties of various oils to help you find out which ones are best for biodiesel production. For example, the saturated fat content of an oil is a strong indicator of its low temperature performance.

WVO titration before biodiesel production

WVO titration is required to understand the quality of the oil. This is a simple test that is used to create a biodiesel recipe. This article provides instructions and videos for titling.

WVO collection for Making Biodiesel

Cheap, free oil makes homebrew affordable. Home brewers have a big advantage over commercial brewers in that they can harvest oil as they come and go from work. Commercial producers must either purchase the oil and pay for its delivery, or hire a driver to collect the oil directly from the restaurant.

WVO drying for Biodiesel

The most common cause of problems in biodiesel production is water in crude oil.

How to make bio diesel

How to make bio diesel

Hemp biodiesel is a real product and is very sustainable as a solution to our dependence on fossil fuels. Hemp biodiesel, if it is economical and efficient to produce. It has been around for a long time, as can be seen from this 1990 statement by Hugh Downs.

“Once upon a time, hemp seemed to have a promising future as the cornerstone of the industry. When Rudolph Diesel produced his famous engine in 1896, he assumed that the diesel engine would run on a variety of fuels, most notably vegetable oils and seeds. Rudolph Diesel, like most engineers of his time, believed that vegetable fuels were better than crude oil. Hemp is the most efficient vegetable. In the 1930s, Ford Motor Company also saw a future in biomass fuels. Ford successfully operated a biomass conversion plant, including hemp, at its Iron Mountain, Michigan plant. Ford engineers extracted methanol, coal, tar, pitch, ethyl acetate and creosote. Tutti gli ingrediants essenziali per un’industria moderna e ora forniti dalle industrie petrolifere”.Hugh Downs, 1990

How to make biodiesel hemp
Method of titration

Safety first: wear protective clothing and goggles. This is a serious business and is not recommended for a “weekend project”. This process serves only as a reference to what qualified biodiesel producers would do.

Measure the content of free fatty acids in the oil: Mix 1ml of oil with 10ml of isopropyl alcohol = 2 drops of Phenothalate solution (available at hobby stores from chemical kit suppliers). Add 0.1% caustic soda solution (1 g caustic soda per liter of water) drop by drop until the solution remains pink for 10 seconds. (20 drops = 1 ml) Record the milliliters of 0.1% lye solution used.

Methanol You will need 200ml of methanol per liter of hemp seed oil. Methanol may be purchased as Drigas available at most automotive stores, read the label for methanol. Also Methanol is available from racing stores. Avoid methanol from the hardware store (wood alcohol) as the mat contains excessive water content.

sodium methoxide For each liter of hemp seed oil, one gram of granular solid lye is required for each ml of 0.1% lye solution used for titration of free fatty acids plus 3.5 grams. Completely dissolve the appropriate amount of lye in methanol (Red Devil Lye can be purchased at the grocery store). Ta połączona mieszanina tworzy sodium methoxide.

Mixer The type of stirrer depends on the lot size. An electric drill and paint mixer on an extended shaft work well in a 5-gallon bucket.

Transesterification: After the leaching catalyst is completely dissolved to leave no deposits, the oil can be added to the methanol lye mixture while stirring. The mixture first becomes denser and then thinner as the reaction proceeds. Collect samples every 5 minutes with a dropper tube or clear container. The blend will separate into a top layer of light biodiesel and a bottom layer of darker glycerin, soap and catalyst. Continue mixing for 30-60 minutes until the yield remains constant. So stop mixing. Go for lunch. It will split into two separate levels upon your return. You did! Leave the mixture for at least 8 hours. Pour and store the top layer of biodiesel in another container. A clear container with a funnel bottom is useful.

FlushingA: The raw biodiesel you just made may contain catalyst, alcohol and glycerin residues which can cause engine problems, so for long term engine reliability this raw fuel should be washed with water. Rinse first gently and then more vigorously with water until the rinse water is clear and the pH of the rinse water is the same as that of the feed water. Settled, decant.

Drying: The water in the biodiesel becomes cloudy, so heat it carefully. At a temperature of 100 C, most of the water melts and sinks to the bottom. This water must be completely removed from the bottom of the container before heating it to a higher temperature.

FAILURE TO REMOVE THIS WATER BEFORE HEATING FURTHER WATER MAY RESULT IN A VIOLENT EXPLOSION OF THE HOT LIQUID!

Once all the water is removed, heat the biodiesel to 300 f (150 degrees Fahrenheit) until completely dry. Cool, filter and store the biodiesel in a well-labeled, dry and closed container. 100% HEMP FUEL FOR DIESEL (HEMP OIL METHYL ESTER – DOMESTIC FUEL)

This fuel can be mixed in any ratio with diesel fuel. Torque tests show full power with up to 75% reduction in soot and particles. No engine modification is required to burn biodiesel.

introduction

The biodiesel production process involves a chemical reaction. This means that the biodiesel industry is a chemical industry. Those involved in biodiesel production must have a good understanding of basic chemistry to be sure they are producing high quality fuel safely.

Find these topics and many other Farm Energy related multimedia resources in the Farm Energy Media archive.

Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel that is produced by the chemical reaction of vegetable oil or animal fat with alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Put simply, the reaction is this:

Oil + alcohol → biodiesel + glycerin

The photo shows a bottle of biodiesel and glycerin (also known as glycerol). Biodiesel is the lightest layer on top. Crude glycerin of a darker color has settled to the bottom.

How to make bio diesel

It is important to realize that unmodified vegetable oil, sometimes referred to as pure vegetable oil (SVO) or waste vegetable oil (WVO), is not biodiesel. Some people have used SVO or WVO on diesel engines with varying success. The main problem is the high viscosity and low volatility of unmodified vegetable oils. Without exception, U. S. engine manufacturers have recommended against the use of SVO and WVO. Further discussions on SVO and WVO can be found here.

Biodiesel is usually preferred over SVO and WVO because the chemical reaction converts the oil or fat into compounds that are closer to the hydrocarbons found in regular diesel fuel.

The chemical reaction that converts vegetable oil or animal fat into biodiesel is called “transesterification”. It’s the long name for a simple process of combining a chemical called an “ester” and an alcohol to create another ester and a different alcohol. The family of esters includes oils and fats. When they react with methanol or ethanol, they form methyl or ethyl esters and a new alcohol called glycerol, or more commonly glycerin.

Gli oli vegetali e i grassi animali utilizzati per produrre il biodiesel possono provenire praticamente da qualsiasi fonte. All of these products contain chemicals called triglycerides, so biodiesel can be made from soybean oil, canola oil, beef and pork tallow, and even exotic oils like nut oil and avocado oil.

Used cooking oil or waste oil can also be used to make biodiesel. However, these oils present a particular challenge for biodiesel production as they contain contaminants such as water, meat scraps and coating that must be filtered before converting the oil to biodiesel.

Methanol is the most common alcohol used for making biodiesel. It is sometimes called methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is very toxic and swallowing even a teaspoon can cause blindness and even death. Hazardous exposure can also occur by inhalation of methanol vapors or by absorption of methanol through skin contact. In the United States, ethanol is usually more expensive than methanol, so it is used less frequently in the production of biodiesel. It is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, so it is non-toxic in small amounts. However, it is subject to very strict government regulations due to tax requirements related to alcoholic beverages.

The chemical reaction used to make biodiesel requires a catalyst. A catalyst is usually a chemical added to a reaction mixture to speed up the reaction. Since the catalyst is not consumed in the reaction, it will eventually remain in some form. In biodiesel production, the actual compound that catalyzes the reaction is called methoxide. A common method of making methoxide is to dissolve sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide in methanol. I grandi produttori acquistano una soluzione molto più sicura di sodium methoxide nel metanolo al lavoro.

High quality biodiesel complies with American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification D6751. Testing fuel compliance can be expensive, especially for small producers, but it is the most reliable way to ensure that fuel consumers have access to high-quality fuel.

How to make bio diesel

Budonictwo Photography / Avalon / Getty Images

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Algae, an attractive candidate for large-scale biodiesel production, is easy to produce and requires less land than many other plant sources commonly used for fuel production. Furthermore, with a composition containing about half of the lipid oils, algae appear to be a rich resource as a feedstock for biofuel production.

How to remove oil from algae

No wonder there are many ways to remove lipids or oils from algae cell walls. But you might be surprised to learn that none of them are a particularly shocking method. For example, have you ever heard of an oil mill? One way to extract oil from algae works very similar to the technique used in an oil mill. It is the simplest and most common method of extracting oil from algae and provides approximately 75% of the total oil available from the algae plant.

Another popular method is the hexane solvent method. Combined with the oil squeezing method, this step can get up to 95% of the available seaweed oil. It uses a two-step process. The first is to use the oil squeezing method. So instead of getting trapped there, the algae debris is mixed with hexane, filtered and cleaned to remove all traces of chemicals from the oil.

Used less frequently, the supercritical fluid method can extract up to 100% of the available algae oil. Carbon dioxide is compressed and heated to convert its composition into both liquid and gas. It is then mixed with algae, which are completely transformed into oil. While it can provide 100% of the available oil, the abundant supply of seaweed and the additional equipment and manpower required make it one of the less popular options.

Growing algae for biodiesel

The methods used to promote the growth of algae in particular in order to obtain as much oil as possible are more varied than the extraction processes. Contrary to practically universal extraction methods, the cultivation of algae for biodiesel differs considerably in terms of the process and method used. È possibile identificare tre modi principali per coltivare le alghe e i produttori di biodiesel hanno lavorato duramente per migliorare questi processi per adattare e perfezionare il processo di crescita.

Cultivation in an open pond

One of the easiest processes to understand, growing in open ponds is also the most natural way to grow algae to make biodiesel. As the name suggests, this method is used to grow algae in open ponds, especially in the very hot and sunny parts of the globe, with the hope of maximizing production. Although it is the simplest form of production, it has serious drawbacks such as a relatively high contamination potential. To really maximize algae production in this way, you need to control the water temperature, which can prove to be very difficult. This method is also more time dependent than others, which is another uncontrollable variable.

Vertical rise

Another method of growing algae is through vertical growth or a closed loop production system. The process emerged when biofuel companies tried to produce algae faster and more efficiently than growing ponds. In vertical cultivation, the algae are placed in clear plastic bags which are stacked high and covered to protect them from the elements. These bags allow exposure to sunlight from many directions. The extra light isn’t trivial as the clear plastic bag provides enough exposure to increase production speed. Obviously, the greater the production of algae, the greater the amount of oil to be extracted. Also, unlike the open pond method, which exposes the algae to contamination, the vertical growth method isolates the algae from them.

Closed tank bioreactors

A third biodiesel extraction method used by companies is closed tank bioreactors, a method of growing algae indoors that increases the already high level of oil production. Indoor plants consist of large, round drums that can grow algae under near-ideal conditions. The algae can be manipulated to grow in these barrels at the highest level, even at the level of the daily harvest. Understandably, this method results in a very high yield of algae and biodiesel oil. Some companies are building closed bioreactors near power plants to process more carbon dioxide than pollute the air.

Producenci biodiesla nadal doskonalą procesy w zamkniętym zbiorniku i w zamkniętym stawie, a niektórzy opracowują odmianę znaną jako fermentacja. This technique raises algae, which “eat” sugar in closed containers to encourage growth. Fermentation is attractive to growers because it gives you complete control of the environment. Another advantage is that it does not depend on weather or similar climatic conditions to be profitable. However, this process is forcing scientists to consider sustainable ways of obtaining enough sugar to maximize algae production.