Energy is fundamental to modern life, but 1.3 billion people around the world live without access to “modern electricity.” But what does that mean exactly? The current definition is a mere 100 kilowatt-hours kWh per person per year for urban areas — or enough to power a single lightbulb for five hours per day and keep a mobile phone charged — and half as much in rural areas. Such a low bar can have profound implications for national targets, for international goals such as Sustainable Development Goal 7, and on a wide range of critical investment decisions with long-term effects on development.
Human and Developmental Implications
The harm to people living with little energy is very real. Indoor air pollution from burning biomass contributes to 3.5 million premature deaths per year, killing more people worldwide than AIDS and malaria combined. Lack of power also does profound damage to education, the empowerment of women and girls and many other development outcomes (see figure 1).
At a macroeconomic level, energy shortages are a massive drag on economic growth and job creation. Typically, some 70 percent of a nation’s energy is consumed for commercial or industrial purposes, not in the home, and data suggest that power shortages are among the very top constraints to private-sector growth.
All rich countries use large amounts of energy (see figure 2).
Aggressive electrification was an essential strategy to fight poverty and promote development in countries that are now rich, and it is now the same for the still-developing regions. Power is among the top priorities for governments and citizens alike. The international community is also on board, with efforts such as the UN’s Sustainable Energy for All, the US government’s Power Africa, and many other similar initiatives. The UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 7, for instance, is to “ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, and modern energy for all.”
- They aim too low by measuring progress against a single, very low level of electricity consumption.
- They focus too much on household usage at the expense of building a modern energy system that can compete in a global economy.
Given the shortcomings of the current approach to defining and measuring modern energy access, we put forward the following five recommendations for the UN, International Energy Agency, World Bank, national governments, major donors, and other relevant organizations.
1. Maintain the existing energy access threshold but rename it, more appropriately, the “extreme energy poverty” line. The current use of 100 kWh per capita per year remains valuable as an indicator for the initial rung on the energy ladder. But this level of energy consumption is consistent with only very basic lighting and phone charging. It is the notional equivalent of the extreme poverty line when measuring income, merely a bare minimum starting point rather than the finish line of development success.
- Basic energy access at 300 kWh per capita per year, which would enable running basic appliances such as fans, televisions, and refrigerators, which families demand once they have modest additional income.
- Modern energy access at 1,500 kWh per capita per year, a level of consumption consistent with the label “modern” that includes on-demand usage of multiple modern appliances, including air conditioning.
- extreme low energy (national average of less than 300 kWh per capita per year)
- low energy (300–1,000)
- middle energy (1,0000–5,000)
- high energy (>5,000)
5. Invest in data collection on energy consumption, utilizing new technology to improve collection. Additional higher-quality data would allow a better understanding of energy use, help identify gaps, and enable better targeting of new investments.
Top Image: Getty Images.
This piece first appeared on the Center for Global Development’s site.
Todd Moss, Co-Chair of the Energy Access Targets Working Group, is Chief Operating Officer and Senior Fellow at the Center for Global Development.
Mimi Alemayehou, Co-Chair of the Energy Access Targets Working Group, is a Managing Director at the Black Rhino Group.
IEA (2020), SDG7: Data and Projections, IEA, Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/sdg7-data-and-projections
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Access to electricity
Energy access policies continue to bear fruit, with 2019 data showing important progress. The number of people without access to electricity dropped from almost 860 million in 2018 to 770 million in 2019, a record low in recent years. In India, the government announced having reached full electricity access in 2019, and effective policies have been implemented in a number of countries in Africa. Nonetheless, past progress is being reversed due to the Covid-19 pandemic. In sub-Saharan Africa, while the number of people without access to electricity has steadily declined since 2013, it is now set to increase in 2020, pushing many countries farther away from achieving the goal of universal access by 2030.
Covid-19 reverses electricity access progress
Our latest country-by-country assessment shows that in 2019, the number of people without electricity access had dropped to 770 million, a record low in recent years. However, progress remains uneven, and 75% of the population without access now live in sub-Saharan Africa, a share that has risen over recent years.
Almost 1.2 billion people have gained access to electricity in developing Asia since 2000, with 96% of the region having access to electricity in 2019 compared with 67% in 2000. Around two-third of this progress has occurred in India, where the government announced that more than 99% of the population had access to electricity in 2019, thanks to the ambitious Saubhagya Scheme launched in October 2017. The government is now targeting a 24/7 supply of electricity and such accelerated progress can serve as a case in point to inspire efforts in other areas of the world.
In Africa, the number of people gaining access to electricity doubled from 9 million a year between 2000 and 2013 to 20 million people between 2014 and 2019, outpacing population growth. As a result, the number of people without access to electricity, which peaked at 610 million in 2013, declined progressively to around 580 million in 2019. Much of this recent dynamism comes from a small number of countries leading the progress, in particular Kenya, Senegal, Rwanda, Ghana and Ethiopia. In Kenya, the access rate rose from 20% in 2013 to almost 85% in 2019. The majority of progress over the past decade in Africa has been made as a result of grid connections, but a rapid rise has been seen in the deployment of off-grid systems. Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia accounted for around half of the 5 million people gaining access through new solar home systems in 2018 (up from only 2 million in 2016), as analysed in the 2019 Africa Energy Outlook.
However, the health crisis and economic downturn caused by Covid-19 is compounding the difficulties faced by governments as they look to alleviate energy poverty and expand access, pushing countries farther away from achieving universal access. Shifting government priorities, supply-chain disruptions and social distancing measures have slowed access programmes and hindered activities in the decentralised energy access area. Sub-Saharan Africa, home to three-quarters of the global population without access to electricity, has been particularly hard hit, and recent progress achieved in the region is being reversed by the effects of the pandemic: our first estimates indicate that the population without access to electricity could increase in 2020 for the first time since 2013. Mobilising development finance institutions and donors is critical to ensuring that energy access progress continues.
Population without access is set to increase again in 2020 after 6 years of decline in Africa
Proportion of population with access to electricity, 2000-2019
Outlook for electricity access
The economic difficulties and risks arising from the Covid-19 crisis are moving many areas further away from the goal of achieving universal access. In the scenario where today’s current and announced policies continue (what we call the Stated Policies Scenario, or STEPS), there is a slowdown in progress in 2020 and 2021 due to the crisis. This means that by 2030, there are around 660 million people who do not have access to electricity – approximately 35 million more people than in our projections from last year for the World Energy Outlook-2019 under the STEPS. Countries such as Ghana, Kenya, Senegal, Ethiopia and Rwanda lead the progress and manage to achieve universal access by 2030 through the effective and ambitious policies and programmes they had already put in place prior to the crisis. In 2030, 50% of the global population without access is concentrated in seven countries – Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Uganda, Pakistan, Tanzania, Niger and Sudan.
Nevertheless, the uncertainties arising from the Covid-19 crisis pose many risks to progress in gaining access by reducing the ability of households to pay for energy services and weakening the financial situation of governments and energy companies. If the economic rebound were to be slower, as in the Delayed Recovery Scenario, then an additional 100 million people would not have access to electricity in 2030. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, would see the access situation worsen, with the number of people without access to electricity increasing to 630 million, or more than 80% of the global total.
If governments and donors wish to avoid such a reversal of recent progress, they will need to put access at the heart of recovery plans and programmes. In the Sustainable Development Scenario, we consider that strong policy support and international co-operation enable a ramping up of progress on electricity access as part of international and national recovery plans, and achieve universal access to electricity by 2030 alongside access to clean cooking, in line with SDG 7.1. This scenario requires around $35 billion to be spent annually from 2021 to 2030 on generation and electricity networks through smart and efficient integrated delivery programmes, and making full use of decentralised solutions. This is three-times more than in the STEPS, and almost two thirds of the required investment should go to sub-Saharan Africa.
Under the Stated Policies Scenario, there are still around 560 million people without access in 2030 in sub-Saharan Africa, in the face of rapid population growth and increased difficulties due to Covid-19
Proportion of population with access to electricity, 2000-2030
The least expensive way to achieve universal electricity access in many areas appears to be renewable energy sources: in addition to increasing grid-connected electricity generation from renewables, declining costs of small-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) for stand-alone systems and mini-grids is key in helping deliver affordable electricity access to millions. This is especially the case in remote rural areas in African countries, home to many of the people still deprived of electricity access. Decentralised solutions as a whole are the least-cost way to provide power to more than half of the population gaining access by 2030 according to our Sustainable Development Scenario.
Education Gainesville Student Showcase
Gainesville Student Publishes Award Winning Essay
Erin Warrick wrote the following essay in her senior year at Gainesville High School for a contest sponsored by the White River Valley Electric Cooperative’s Youth Tour Essay Contest. She was one of three winners, and won an all-expenses paid trip to Washington D.C. for six days in June.
Living Without Electricity Imagine life without electricity, not just a brief power outage. We all know how inconvenient life becomes when our electricity is out for only a few hours. How hard it is to remember for that short period of time that the light switch will not produce instant light, the hair dryer will not immediately blow dry our hair, or that we can’t even run water into our homes. Our homes and lives have become so dependent on electricity it is really hard to imagine everything that would change without it.
Lifestyles in our own Ozark Mountain region have changed dramatically with the invention of electricity and its establishment into our everyday lives. Have you ever noticed a log cabin built at the very top of a high mountain where it would have a beautiful view? Probably not. Locations were chosen for homes because of accessibility to water, preferably a big spring. Having your home close to a spring meant having cold milk, a cool watermelon in the summer, and plenty of drinking water. Before electricity, a “spring box” would be constructed where the cool spring water would run into it and be deep enough to cover containers of milk, butter, etc. I’m convinced that a spring located close to your home was just about one of the biggest luxuries in those days. Remember, without electricity there were no electric cattle waterers. Drawing water from the well by hand to water a herd of cattle and horses would now seem an impossible task.
Can we really imagine doing laundry without electricity? Carrying water from the spring, or drawing enough water from the hand-dug water well could prove to quite a day’s chore. We really can’t imagine the time and effort put into doing a mere “load of laundry” before our electric washers and dryers.
Homes were built lower in valleys instead of hilltops also because of heating and cooling. Remember, there were no air conditioners or fans to create the perfect breeze on a hot summer day. Also, during the winter the valley provided a much-needed reprieve from the strong winter winds. Our ancestors would surely think we had lost our minds to see where we build homes now.
Now, I wonder what our ancestors did for entertainment? There were no movie theaters, televisions, CD players, or computers. Perhaps being without instant entertainment was why so many people learned to play musical instruments. Families were usually larger in the number of children and they often could have their own “backyard band.” They would often invite neighbors to gather for music and perhaps a dance. Possibly the invention of electricity has caused us to be less creative.
Neighbors were not only for visiting and entertainment; they were also one of the main sources of news and weather. Our ancestors did not have the luxury of choosing their neighbors, but it was almost imperative that they cooperate with each other. How many people today really visit their next door neighbors, or even know who they are?
Neighbors were relied on to help out on butchering day. Because of the lack of refrigeration, fresh meat was not a luxury at every meal. Normally when cool weather would arrive each family would have a “butchering day.” Neighbors would gather at an individual’s home and help out with the daylong task of killing and processing a beef and hog. The meat would then be hung in the smokehouse for curing. Hopefully this meat would last most of the winter, and that there was not a warm winter so that the meat would not spoil. During the summer, meat was only served fresh. If you wanted a nice fried chicken, that meant going to your own chicken yard, catching and then killing and cleaning the chicken yourself. Not quite as convenient as going to the freezer and selecting your meat from the large variety stored there, defrosting it in your microwave, and then baking it in your oven.
I’m sure trying to imagine life without electricity is as difficult for us as would have been for our great-great grandparents to imagine life with electricity. Try to imagine how technology will change our lives in the next fifty years. I wonder if the change will be as significant and life changing as the invention of electricity.
This article was co-authored by April Jordan. April Jordan is a Sustainability Specialist and the Founder of The Ethical Edit, a blog dedicated to making ethical fashion and lifestyle changes accessible by sharing easy-to-digest sustainability information and ethical and sustainable brand reviews. With over five years of experience in sustainability and over five years in the marketing and communications field, April is passionate about using her skills to make the world a better place.
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If you’re looking for absolute freedom, going off the grid may be the lifestyle for you! Living off the grid means living without connections to public utilities like sewer, water, and electrical lines. It also usually means living a minimalist, efficient, self-reliant lifestyle. While it can be tough to get everything established, with hard work and the right equipment, you can build an entirely self-sufficient homestead. To get you started, we’ve put together a list of tips and strategies so you can get an idea of what it takes to truly live off the grid.
There are many instances when you may need to pump water, but you find yourself without electricity.
Some of these instances could be a natural weather disaster, power outages, or attempting to live as “off-grid” as possible.
You may need water out of a well or attempting to pump from a pond, creek, or some other outside water source. Today we will discuss how to pump water without electricity with this step by step guide.
Different Methods for pumping water without electricity
- Solar powered pump to get water from a well
- Manual water pump to get water from a well
- Water-powered water pumps
- Wind powered water pumps
There are benefits and uses for each type of electricity-free pumping methods. Many of the options require access to a well.
Today we will be discussing how to pump water without electricity with the use of water-powered water pumps; specifically a hydraulic ram pump.
What is a hydraulic ram pump?
According to a North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service report, a hydraulic ram pump “is a simple, motorless device for pumping water at low flow rates.
It uses the energy of flowing water to lift water from a stream, pond, or spring to an elevated storage tank or to a discharge point. It is suitable for use where small quantities of water are required and power supplies are limited, such as for household, garden, or livestock water supply.
A hydraulic ram pump is useful where the water source flows constantly and the usable fall from the water source to the pump location is at least 3 feet.”
Here is an excellent step-by-step guide with photos on how to build a hydraulic pump. This one costs about $50 in parts, requires no electricity, and relies on gravity and pressure to function.
How to use a water-powered water pump (Hydraulic ram pump)?
There are two basic requirements for building a hydraulic ram pump:
- You will need a continuous source of water from a pool or natural spring of sorts that is situated above the pump so the water can flow/”fall” down into it.
- You need enough water that no less than 3 gallons of water per minute can flow into the troupe.
To install the pump:
- Install the ram at least a foot and a half below the source of water. The length of the tubing from the water supply to the pump, known as the drive pipe, should be around 10 to 15 times greater than the distance of where it falls.
- Place a filter screen over the drive pipe’s inlet opening to avoid pulling in foreign matter.
- Now run the necessary length of flexible polyethylene tubing from the pump outlet to your storage tank. Watch out for any sharp bends or kinks in the house that would disrupt the flow of water.
How to get the water pump working?
- Once you have installed your water pump, you are ready to try it out.
- Manually push the valve stem up and down around 30 to 40 times to fill the pressure tank until it starts to cycle on its own.
- Once it starts to cycle on its own, screw the adjuster cap up or down to adjust how often it cycles; you will want the cycles to be between 60 and 150 cycles per minute.
- Experiment with this cycle frequency until the pump delivers the most water that you need. Trial and error will most likely be required to get it flowing just right.
How does the gravity-powered water pump work?
- Water from the source falls down into the drive pipe until there is enough pressure built up to start pumping. This pressure naturally increases as the fall increases from the feed pool becomes greater.
- When the waste valve closes, water is driven through a check valve and into an air chamber. The fluid then compresses the air and forces it to kick back, closes the check valve, and pumps the water out of the delivery pipe into your own tank or reservoir.
- When the check valve closes, the water in the drive pipe bounces back momentarily which creates a partial vacuum that opens the waste valve again. Excess liquid flows out of the waste opening and can be directed elsewhere or returned to the water source.
There are a few advantages and disadvantages of using a hydraulic ram pump.
An obvious advantage is that this gravity-powered pump requires no electricity. This pump makes less noise, and also has less moving parts which results in less wear and tear. One potential advantage is that there is a lot of wasted water, but this can be remedied by channeling the wastewater back into your main source of water.
Here is a great illustrated video of how the ram pump works.
There are tons of options out there for pumping water, many requiring the use of electricity. If you are looking for a pump that requires zero electricity than the hydraulic ram pump may be your best choice when you are needing to draw out a lot of water for different uses.
Introduction: How to Have Internet When There Is No Power.
By zack247 Follow
If you live in the area I do, power outages can be a bit common due to storms and such. Being the person I am, the internet would be so nice during that power outage,
So one outage I observed some stuff and noticed, I can have internet when there is no power.
Read on if you are intrigued.
Step 1: Observe!
Before we start, we need to know what we have and what we don’t.
-Check your phone, is the line dead? If its not, you’re good.
-Check to make sure your ethernet router takes the phone cord in.
-Make sure you have a laptop with a charged battery.
If you have a “2Wire” brand router, it should take in 5V.
Basics done, check some technical stuff!
Check your router, make sure it takes in 5V for power. If it is not written on the router you should be able to see it on the power supply for the router.
Check to make sure you have the right plug to fit the power jack on your router. Don’t cut the original power cable, since you’ll need it once the power is back on.
Now, on to the next step!
Step 2: Make Special Power Cords
If you’ve moved on to this step, I’m assuming you have a router that runs on 5V.
Now, you will need a plug that fits your router’s power jack, and a USB cord.
Cut off the peripheral end of the USB cord so you are left with the part that plugs into your laptop.
Strip the wires on the jack and the USB cord, and connect the red wires and black wires, if the wires in the power jack cord are a different set of colors, match red to one of the wires and black to the other, then move on.
Step 3: Turn It On!
First, connect the ethernet cord if your laptop connects to the router in that fashion.
Next, plug the power cord you just made into the laptop and the router.
Turn on your laptop. Check the router for signs of power.
If it shows it has power, then great! You have internet for as long as your laptop battery lasts.
But if it doesn’t, consider the following:
-Try swapping the red and black wires from the USB cord and test again.
-If nothing gets it to work, your router might use too much current for the USB port to supply (shouldn’t be a problem, my router pulls 2A but used the 500mA just fine.) or your router might run on a higher voltage than 5V. Double check the router and the router power supply for the voltages.
If you got your internet working, I hope you enjoyed my Instructable.
Just remember; I am in no way responsible for any damage inflicted to your equipment should you choose to follow these instructions.
Electricity is something that people cannot live without in the modern day. Without it, life will be so much difficult and slow. People need to learn how to value electricity and learn how to produce it from renewable sources. �
Hundreds of years ago, people have never imagined that they can make lives very easy through technology. In the modern day, people cannot imagine life without electricity. Why is electrical power so important for people today? Let us discuss some aspects of life that electricity has improved a lot.�
Communication � This is probably the most improved aspect in people�s lives. With electrically powered gadgets and computers, people now communicate with each other no matter how far the distance is. As long as you have a source of power to use your mobile phone or the internet, you will not have any problem with long distance communication. Can you still imagine the world without your smart phones and laptops?�
Entertainment � Electricity has improved entertainment a lot too. People can use televisions and radios because of electricity. It is also used for printing books and for powering microphones during events. Imagine life without these entertainment appliances and equipment. Let�s face it. Life will become very dull without it. No more game consoles to kill time with.�
Work � Tell me a kind of work or profession that does not need electricity. There is none. From construction to corporate jobs, from white-collared to blue-collared work, people need electricity to operate some equipment needed to finish their daily tasks. This is the reason why when there is a shortage of energy, companies suffer a lot because they cannot operate and provide the service they promised to their clients.�
Transportation � Electricity is starting to transform the transportation system in many countries. Aside from trains, cars and other vehicles are now being designed to be powered not by gas but by electricity. This is because it is eco-friendly and it does not create harmful by-products such as carbon emissions. If all modes of transportation do not use gas, air pollution and global warming will definitely be solved.�
Food � The food industry also needs power to operate. It is a lot faster and easier to produce food items now because of machines. Imagine fast food chains or restaurants having no source of power. Surely, you will have to wait hours before you can eat the meal you ordered.�
Home � Electricity is also very efficient for households. Homes can use air-conditioners when there the summer is on. They can also deviate from traditional heaters and choose electric heaters during the winter season. The family can bond together by watching movies on DVD or by playing games together.�
These are just some of the advantages of electricity. There are also some disadvantages and issues concerning it as well. For instance, it is most commonly made by burning crude oil or fossil fuels. The bad thing is that these things are non-renewable. Once these resources disappear , the world will definitely suffer.�The good thing is that there are now renewable sources of electricity that are being discovered and developed. One example is the solar energy which uses the heat from the sun. Hydroelectric uses the power of running water that moves turbines. Geothermal energy produces electricity through the heat from the ground.�
Neda Billie says she’s so excited to turn the lights on in her home on the Navajo Nation. About 10% of Navajos on the reservation live without electricity, and as much as 40% have to haul their water and use outhouses. Laurel Morales/KJZZ hide caption
Neda Billie says she’s so excited to turn the lights on in her home on the Navajo Nation. About 10% of Navajos on the reservation live without electricity, and as much as 40% have to haul their water and use outhouses.
Neda Billie has been waiting to turn on lights in her home for 15 years.
“We’ve been living off those propane lanterns,” she says. “Now we don’t have to have flashlights everywhere. All the kids have a flashlight so when they get up in the middle of the night like to use the restroom they have a flashlight to go to [the outhouse].”
Billie, her husband and their five kids live in a tiny, one-room hogan, a traditional Navajo home. Their three sheep graze on sagebrush that carpets the rolling hills of Dilkon, Ariz., on the Navajo Nation, the largest Native American reservation in the U.S.
They watch two men in a cherry picker hook up the last power line to their home. Billie says they’ve gone through too many generators to count.
“My two boys, they have really bad allergies and they have asthma, so sometimes they need the nebulizer,” Billie says. “So we usually go to my mom’s house, travel in the middle of the night over there back and forth.”
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The Billies are not alone. About 10% of Navajos on the reservation live without electricity. And as much as 40% of them have to haul their water and use outhouses. A poll of rural Americans conducted by NPR, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health found that more than a quarter of Native Americans have experienced problems with electricity, the Internet and with the safety of their drinking water.
A crew from PNM Electric hooks up a power line to the Billies’ home. On the Navajo Nation, the homes are so spread out that it costs $40,000 on average to hook up one home to the electrical grid. Laurel Morales/KJZZ hide caption
A crew from PNM Electric hooks up a power line to the Billies’ home. On the Navajo Nation, the homes are so spread out that it costs $40,000 on average to hook up one home to the electrical grid.
Northern Arizona University professor Manley Begay Jr., who is Navajo, says the numbers are probably even higher. Begay says electricity provides more than just light. With electricity, a family can pump water, charge their phone, store food, even get and maintain a job.
“Electricity itself provides a tremendous amount of convenience and having access to the world at large,” Begay says. “You can just imagine if you were to fill out an application for a job, you do it online and you send it in. Or you’re Googling for information — if you don’t have electricity, you’re in trouble.”
Begay says he recently saw something strange when he pulled into a hotel parking lot in Window Rock, Ariz., the capital of the Navajo Nation. He noticed a bunch of teenagers in their cars.
“You could tell that they were high school students,” Begay says. “They were doing their homework outside this hotel in the parking lot. They had the light on in their cars and doing their homework. It became quite clear that they didn’t have Internet.”
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Outside the Billies’ home, the couple waits patiently for the crew to finish the job. Brian Cooper from PNM Electric has an update.
“We’ll get a meter going and you should have electricity,” Cooper says. “Can’t wait to see the real smile here in a minute. Don’t cover it up! I want to see it! That’s what joy looks like.”
Cooper traveled from New Mexico along with several other crews from around the country volunteering their time to connect people like the Billies to the power grid.
Brian Cooper of PNM Electric in New Mexico tells Neda Billie that the company would like to give her family a refrigerator. Several crews from utilities around the country are volunteering their time to connect people like the Billies to the power grid. Laurel Morales/KJZZ hide caption
Brian Cooper of PNM Electric in New Mexico tells Neda Billie that the company would like to give her family a refrigerator. Several crews from utilities around the country are volunteering their time to connect people like the Billies to the power grid.
On the Navajo Nation, the homes are so spread out that it costs $40,000 on average to hook up one home to the grid. And half the tribe is unemployed. So you can’t raise rates to energize all those homes. The Navajo Tribal Utility Authority and the nonprofit American Public Power Association have put a call out to utilities across the U.S. to help.
“I had no idea there were people still in 2019 without power,” Cooper says.
Finally, after waiting for so long, the Billies watch the foreman turn on the meter behind their house and snap the cover shut. Neda then runs inside to flip the switch.
“It’s so exciting to finally have electricity here after so many years without it,” Billie says. “My kids are going to be so happy. They keep asking every day. . They go, ‘Mom we’re going to have light! We’re going to finally have light!’ “
Now the family will wait and pray for running water and Internet.
Correction May 29, 2019
An earlier Web version of this story had the wrong name for the electrical services company in New Mexico. It is PNM, not P&M.