How to diagnose bone cancer

When diagnosing bone cancer, the process typically includes a physical exam, questions about a person’s personal and family medical history, and certain tests and procedures that examine the bone. The tests and procedures used to make a diagnosis include, but are not limited to, blood tests, X-rays, computed tomography, and biopsies.

Bone Cancer Diagnosis: An Introduction

The role of physical examination and history in the diagnosis of bone cancer

Exams and tests used to make a diagnosis

  • Blood analysis
  • X-ray
  • Computed Tomography (CT)
  • Bone scan
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
  • Angiogram
  • Biopsy.

How to diagnose bone cancer

Bone Cancer Information

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How to diagnose bone cancer

The prognosis for bone cancer varies widely from patient to patient. Doctors, oncologists, and other healthcare professionals take many factors into consideration when making a prognosis for a patient with bone cancer. They need to consider what stage of bone cancer the patient has, where exactly the cancer is in the body, whether the cancer originates from the bones or other parts of the body, and the patient’s medical history and general health. A good prognosis suggests that the doctor believes the patient will respond well to treatment, and a poor prognosis for bone cancer means that many common treatments may fail.

A look at the five-year overall survival rate after diagnosis also helps doctors determine the prognosis for patients with bone cancer. Five-year survival rates for bone cancer range from approximately 67-73%. Caucasian males have the lowest survival rate and Caucasian females the highest. These numbers give the big picture. Individual forecasts can be better or worse than average.

One of the main things doctors consider when making a bone cancer prognosis is the stage of the cancer. Bone cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes or has spread further in the body is more difficult to treat. Cancer that is diagnosed while still completely in the bone has a better prognosis, with an overall five-year survival rate of around 85%.

Primary bone cancer arises from the bones and is often easier to treat if detected early. Secondary bone cancer is cancer that has spread to the bones from other parts of the body. If this occurs after the primary cancer has gone into remission, it may respond well to treatment. Treatment of secondary bone cancer while treating cancer elsewhere in the body can be particularly difficult and the prognosis may be less favorable depending on the stage of the primary cancer, its location and response to treatment.

A patient who has other health problems or problems may have a less favorable prognosis than a patient with bone cancer who is otherwise healthy. Other conditions and medications can interact with cancer treatment and cause or worsen side effects or make treatment less effective. Patients with bone cancer should report any health concerns to their doctor to receive the most accurate information and treatment possible.

Research into bone cancer and its treatments is still ongoing. Scientists and doctors have made great strides in the field of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, making them more useful and less prone to serious side effects. New surgical techniques are constantly being developed to help bone cancer patients get limbs and keep fit. These techniques often reduce the frequency of amputations and lead to a better prognosis for many patients. The prognosis of bone cancer is based on so many individual factors that patients diagnosed with the disease should talk extensively with their doctors about the individual treatment and the likelihood of its success.

A multidisciplinary team of bone cancer experts uses a variety of tests and tools to diagnose bone cancer, assess disease, determine affected bone, and develop an individualized treatment plan. During treatment, imaging and laboratory tests this track the size of the tumor (s) and monitor the response to treatment, allowing us to adjust the plan as needed.

Tools often used to diagnose bone cancer include:

Biopsy

Two biopsy techniques to detect bone cancer include:

Biopsy igłowa: The doctor will numb the area with a local anesthetic before inserting a needle into a suspicious area to collect a cell sample. In some cases, computed tomography (computed tomography) may be used to help guide the needle.

Biopsy chirurgiczna:This is usually done under general anesthesia by a surgeon who removes the tissue sample (incisional biopsy) or the entire tumor (excisional biopsy).

Bone scan

Radionuclide bone scanning can be used to diagnose and stage bone cancer.

This bone cancer detection tool can reveal whether the primary tumor has spread to other places in the bone and what damage it has caused. In bone scans, a small dose of radioactive material is injected into a blood vessel where it passes through the bloodstream. The material then accumulates in the bones and is detected by a scanner using nuclear imaging. This test is very sensitive and can detect small metastases before they show up on a normal X-ray. However, other conditions such as arthritis or infection look similar on a scan, so a confirmatory biopsy is often required.

Cancer can make bone look different than surrounding healthy bone on an X-ray. The bone may look jagged or it may look like it has a hole in it. Chest x-rays can also help determine if cancer cells have spread to the lungs.

computed tomography

computed tomographys are usually used to help form an initial bone cancer diagnosis and to see whether the cancer has spread to other areas of the body. computed tomographys may also be used to guide the biopsy needle.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) can help scratch a tumor in the bone and can also help determine if cancer cells have spread to the brain or spinal cord.

Animal scan

A PET (positron emission tomography)/computed tomography is an advanced nuclear imaging technique that combines computed tomography technology with positron emission tomography into one machine. A PET/computed tomography shows both the structure and function of cells and tissues in the body during a single imaging session. In bone cancer, this scan provides a more complete picture for determining the presence of abnormal activity, even before the cancer has developed.

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Bone cancer (bone sarcoma): diagnosis

ON THIS PAGE: You’ll find a list of common tests, procedures, and scans that doctors use to find the cause of a medical problem. Use the menu to see other pages.

Doctors use many tests to find or diagnose cancer. They also perform tests to find out if the cancer has spread to any other part of the body where it started. If this happens, it is called metastasis. Ad esempio, i test di imaging come i X-ray possono essere utilizzati per diagnosticare il sarcoma osseo e vedere se il cancro si è diffuso. Imaging tests show pictures of the inside of the body. I tumori benigni e i tumori cancerosi di solito hanno un aspetto diverso nei test di imaging, descritti di seguito.

Although imaging tests may suggest a diagnosis of bone sarcoma, a biopsy will be done if possible to confirm the diagnosis and determine the subtype. For most types of cancer, a biopsy is the only way to make a definitive cancer diagnosis. If a biopsy isn’t possible, your doctor may suggest other tests to help make a diagnosis. It is extremely important for the patient to consult a sarcoma surgeon, such as an orthopedic oncologist, prior to surgery or biopsy.

This section describes the options for diagnosing bone sarcoma. Not all of the tests listed below will apply to everyone. Doctors may consider these factors when choosing a diagnostic test:

Suspected type of cancer

Your signs and symptoms

Your age and general health

The results of previous medical examinations

In addition to a physical exam, the following tests can be used to diagnose or determine the severity (or exsquestion) of bone sarcoma:

Blood analysis. Certain laboratory blood tests can help detect bone sarcoma. People with osteosarcoma or Ewing’s sarcoma may have higher blood levels of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. However, keep in mind that high levels don’t always mean cancer. Alkaline phosphatase is usually high when the cells that make up the bone are very active, such as when babies are growing up or when a broken bone is healing.

Overexposure.I X-ray sono un modo per creare un’immagine delle strutture all’interno del corpo con una piccola quantità di radiazioni.

Bone scan. Bone scan może być wykorzystany do określenia stadium mięsaka kości. Bone scan wykorzystuje radioaktywny znacznik, aby zajrzeć do wnętrza kości. this tracer is injected into a patient’s vein. It accumulates in the bone areas and is detected by a special camera. Healthy bone appears brighter on the camera, and areas of trauma, such as those caused by cancer cells, stand out in the photo.

Computed tomography (CT or CAT). A computed tomography takes pictures of the inside of the body using x-rays taken from different angles. The computer combines these images into a detailed three-dimensional image that shows any abnormalities or bumps. A computed tomography can be used to measure the tumor’s size. Sometimes a special dye called a contrast agent is inserted before scanning to give the image more detail. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein or given as a pill or liquid to swallow.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). MRI wykorzystuje pola magnetyczne, a nie X-ray, aby uzyskać szczegółowe obrazy ciała. MRI can be used to measure the tumor’s size. A special dye called a contrast agent is applied before scanning to produce a sharper image. This dye can be injected into a patient’s vein. MRI scans are used to check for tumors in nearby soft tissues. MRI scans provide a roadmap for an orthopedic cancer surgeon to perform the best cancer surgery possible.

Positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-computed tomography. A Animal scan may be used to help determine the stage of a bone sarcoma. A Animal scan is usually combined with a computed tomography (see above), called a PET-computed tomography. However, you may hear your doctor refer to this procedure just as a Animal scan. A Animal scan is a way to create picture of organs and tissues inside the body. A small amount of a radioactive sugar substance is injected into the patient’s body. This sugary substance is absorbed by the cells which consume more energy. As cancer tries to actively use energy, it absorbs more radioactive material. The scanner then detects this substance to take pictures of the inside of the body.

Biopsy. Biopsy polega na pobraniu niewielkiej ilości tkanki do badania pod mikroskopem. Other tests may suggest the presence of cancer, but only a biopsy can make a definitive diagnosis. The pathologist then analyzes the sample (s). A pathologist is a physician who specializes in interpreting laboratory tests and evaluating cells, tissues, and organs to diagnose disease. Performing a needle biopsy or incision biopsy depends on the location of the tumor. A needle biopsy makes a small hole in the bone and the tissue sample is removed from the tumor with a needle-like instrument. In an incision biopsy, the tissue sample is removed after making a small incision in the tumor. Occasionally it may not be possible to perform a biopsy.

The type of biopsy and how it is performed are important in the diagnosis and treatment of sarcoma, so patients should be followed up at a specialized sarcoma center before the biopsy is performed. At the sarcoma treatment center, the attending surgeon can determine the location of the biopsy. Since bone sarcomas are rare, it is also important for an experienced pathologist to examine the tissue sample taken to correctly diagnose sarcoma.

After you run the diagnostic tests, your doctor will review all results with you. If the diagnosis is cancer, these findings also help the doctor describe the cancer. This is called staging and grading.

this the next section of this guide is Phases and Steps . Explain what system doctors use to describe the severity of a disease. Use the menu to select a different section to read in this guide.

  • What are the symptoms and signs of bone cancer?
  • How is bone cancer diagnosed?
  • A Guide to Bone Cancer Topics
  • A Doctor’s Notes on Bone Cancer Symptoms Symptoms and Diagnostic Signs

What are the symptoms and signs of bone cancer?

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this most common symptom of bone tumors is pain. In most cases, the symptoms become more severe over time. Initially, the pain may be only nocturnal or during activity. Depending on the growth of the tumor, those affected may have symptoms for weeks, months, or years before seeing a doctor. In some cases, you may feel a mass or lump on the bone or in the tissues surrounding the bone. It is more common with MFH (malignant fibrous histiocytoma) or fibrosarcoma, but can occur with other bone tumors. this bones can become weakened by the tumor and lead to a break in the bone or fracture after little or no trauma or just from standing on the affected bone. This can occur with both benign and malignant tumors. Benign tumors can also spread locally and weaken the surrounding bone. If the tumor compresses the surrounding nerve, it can cause pain, numbness, or tingling in the limbs. If the surrounding blood vessels are compressed, it can affect blood flow to the extremities. Fevers, chills, night sweats, and weight loss may occur but are less common. thisse symptoms are more common after spread of the tumor to other tissues in the body.

Rzadziej rak obejmujący kości może powodować brak równowagi minerałów w krwiobiegu, a w szczególności podwyższenie poziomu wapnia. Symptoms of high calcium levels (hypercalcemia) can include constipation, confusion, sleepiness, excessive urination, and dry mouth indicating dehydration.

How is bone cancer diagnosed?

this first thing your doctor will do is to take a complete medical history. This will include an overview of your past health problems, as well as early symptoms and the current trend of your symptoms. This will give your doctor clues to your diagnosis. Niektóre rodzaje raka występują częściej u osób, które mają bliskich członków rodziny, którzy mieli this rodzaj raka. Some cancers, especially lung cancer, are more common in people with a history of smoking. A description of your symptoms can help your doctor identify the possibility of bone cancer due to other possible causes. So a full physical exam can help determine the cause of the symptoms. Ciò può includere testare la forza muscolare, il senso del tatto e i riflessi.

Certain blood tests may be ordered to help identify possible cancer. thisre is presently no single blood test that will tell if a person has cancer in their body.

Next, the doctor will likely order imaging tests. Plain X-ray are ofthis ordered first. In some cases, if the cancer is identified very early, it may not show up on plain X-ray. this appearance of a tumor on the X-ray can help determine the type of cancer and whether or not it is benign or malignant. I tumori benigni hanno maggiori probabilità di avere un bordo liscio, mentre i tumori maligni hanno maggiori probabilità di avere un bordo frastagliato sui X-ray. Questo perché i tumori benigni di solito crescono più lentamente e l’osso ha il tempo di provare a circondare il tumore con un osso normale. Malignant tumors are more likely to grow faster without giving normal bone a chance to surround the tumor. this X-ray can also be used to identify if a fracture has occurred or if the bone has been weakened and is at risk for a pothistial fracture.

  • A computed tomography (CAT scan or computed tomography) scan is a more advanced test that can give a cross-sectional picture of your bones.
    • Ten test daje bardzo szczegółowe informacje na temat twoich kości i jest w stanie lepiej zidentyfikować pothiscjalny guz. It also provides additional information on the size and location of the tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is another advanced test that can also provide cross-sectional images of your body.
    • this MRI provides better detail of the soft tissues, including muscles, thisdons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels than a computed tomography. This test can provide more details on whether the bone tumor has perforated the bone and whether it is involving the surrounding soft tissues.
  • Bone scan to test, który identyfikuje obszary szybko rosnącej lub przebudowy kości. this bone scan is ofthis taken of the entire body.
    • This test can be ordered to see if there are other areas of bone involvement throughout the body. This test is not specific to any particular type of cancer and can be positive for many other conditions, including infections, fractures and arthritis.
  • A Animal scan can be used to identify areas of abnormal uptake of radioactive sugar in cancer cells in the body.
  • Angiogram może pomóc w określeniu naczyń krwionośnych w obszarze raka kości.

If a tumor is identified, the doctor will use all information from the history and physical examination along with laboratory and imaging tests to create a list of possible causes (differential diagnosis).

The doctor can then take a sample of the tumor. This is called a biopsy and involves taking a small sample of the tumor that a pathologist (a doctor with special training in tissue diagnosis) can examine in a laboratory to determine the type of tumor. this biopsy can be obtained either through a small needle (needle biopsy) or through a small incision (incisional biopsy). this various imaging studies will be used to determine the safest and easiest location from which to obtain the biopsy sample. This involves collecting a small sample of the tumor, which can be examined in the laboratory by a pathologist (a doctor with specific training in tissue diagnosis) to determine the type of tumor. this biopsy can be obtained either through a small needle (needle biopsy) or through a small incision (incisional biopsy). this various imaging studies will be used to determine the safest and easiest location from which to obtain the biopsy sample.

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Bone cancer (bone sarcoma): symptoms and signs

ON THIS PAGE: You will learn more about body changes and other things that may signal a problem that may need medical attention. Use the menu to see other pages.

People with bone sarcoma may experience the following symptoms or signs. Sometimes people with bone sarcoma have none of these changes. Or the symptom may be caused by another medical condition other than cancer.

When a bone tumor grows, it presses against healthy bone tissue and can destroy it, causing the following symptoms:

Ache. this earliest symptoms of bone sarcoma are pain and swelling where the tumor is located. this pain may come and go at first. thisn it can become more severe and steady later. this pain may get worse with movement, and there may be swelling in nearby soft tissue. this pain may not go away, and it can occur while resting or at night. Most childhood bone sarcomas occur around the knee and can be misdiagnosed as “growing pain”, leading to a delay in diagnosis. Learn more about cancer and pain.

Swelling and stiffness in the joints. Un nodulo presente vicino o all’interno di un’articolazione può far gonfiare l’articolazione e renderla thisera o rigida. This means that a person may have limited and painful range of motion.

Limping. If a bone with a tumor is fractured or broken in one leg, this can lead to a distinct lameness. Lameness is usually a symptom of advanced bone sarcoma.

Other less common symptoms.Rarely, people with bone sarcoma may have symptoms such as fever, general malaise, weight loss, and anemia, which are low levels of red blood cells.

If you are concerned about any changes you are experiencing, talk to your doctor. In addition to other questions, the doctor will ask how long and how often the symptoms occur. This is to determine the cause of the problem, known as the diagnosis.

If cancer is diagnosed, symptom relief remains an important part of cancer care and treatment. This can be called palliative care or supportive care. It often begins soon after diagnosis and continues throughout treatment. Be sure to speak to your healthcare team about any symptoms you are experiencing, including any new symptoms or changes in symptoms.

this the next section of this guide is Diagnosis . Explain what tests may be needed to learn more about the cause of the symptoms. Use the menu to select a different section to read in this guide.

In this articolo

  • How cancer is diagnosed
  • How nuclear medicine treats cancer

Nuclear medicine can help diagnose and treat a variety of conditions, including some forms of cancer.

In nuclear medicine, doctors put small amounts of radioactive material into your body so they can see your organs and tissues and how they work. This can help them spot tumors and see if your cancer has spread to other areas of your body. It can also help target cancer cells.

Doctors also use nuclear medicine to see if the treatment is working.

How cancer is diagnosed

Like X-ray, nuclear medicine is a type of radiology. But while X-ray give doctors a “big picture” view of your anatomy, nuclear imaging shows the amount of activity in your organs and tissues.

Quando i medici usano la medicina nucleare per diagnosticare o monitorare una malattia come il cancro, immettono nel corpo sostanze chiamate radionuclidi (o "traccianti") che rilasciano bassi livelli di radiazioni.

You can take radionuclides by mouth or through an intravenous (IV) drip.

After downloading these radionuclides, you will get something called a nuclear scan. The scans take photos of a specific area of ​​the body to help doctors find bumps and other things like infections. For example, a tumor may appear as a “hot spot” in the photo, which means that radiation accumulates in larger quantities in areas where the tumor is active. Or the tumor may appear as a “cold spot,” which means that, in fact, there is less activity in the cells. It could also be a sign of cancer.

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this type of scan you receive depends on what your doctors want to see. Some of the more common types of scans used to diagnose and monitor cancer include:

Bone scans. thisse look for cancer that has gone to your bones from other areas of your body. Nuclear medicine can sometimes find signs of bone cancer earlier than X-ray can.

Gallium scans. A radioactive substance called gallium enters a vein through an IV. It can help your doctor find cancer throughout the body. Gallium scans can also detect other problems, such as infections or inflammation.

MUGA scans. Doctors use radionuclides to see how the heart pumps blood. This helps them find out how well your heart is working before, during, and after certain types of chemotherapy. This is because chemotherapy, especially in large quantities, can affect the functioning of the heart.

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PET (positron emission tomography)scan. When you have it, you get an intravenous injection of radioactive sugar. this amount of that sugar that your cells absorb can help your doctors learn how fast your cancer cells are growing. In some cases, you would get Animal scans along with computerized tomography (CT) scans. Together, these tests help doctors determine exactly where the tumors are.

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Thyroid scans. To get one, ingest radioactive iodine or get an injection. this iodine collects in your thyroid gland and helps doctors find thyroid cancer.

Nuclear medicine scans aren’t painful. this scans usually involve lying on a table while a doughnut-shaped scanning machine takes photos. this whole thing usually takes 30 minutes to an hour. In some cases, you may need to stop eating or drinking for a certain amount of time before your scan.

How nuclear medicine treats cancer

thisre are several types of nuclear medicine that treat cancer. thisy include:

Radioimmunotherapy.If you have non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that doesn’t respond to chemotherapy, your doctor may recommend it, also called RIT.

It combines radiation therapy and something called immunotherapy, a type of treatment that uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer.

Through an infusion into a vein, the doctor gives you something called monoclonal antibodies. thisse are man-made proteins that target certain parts of cancer cells. You also get the radioactive substance attached to these antibodies.

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Together, these things attach themselves to cancer cells and deliver radiation directly to the tumor to kill it.

Scientists want to see if radioimmunotherapy can help with other cancers, such as:

  • Prostate Cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Leukemia
  • Colon cancer
  • High-grade brain glioma

Radioactive iodine therapy.Your thyroid absorbs almost all of the iodine you take in. In this trattamento, lo iodio radioattivo (noto anche come RAI o I-131) si accumula nelle cellule della tiroide, dove distrugge la ghiandola e le cellule.

Unlike other forms of radiation, radioactive iodine therapy (also known as radioactive iodine) works without harming the rest of the body. Doctors often use radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid tissue that cannot be surgically removed. It also sometimes helps kill thyroid cancer cells that have spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body.

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Brachytherapy. This procedure delivers high doses of radioactive material into the body to kill cancer cells. In most cases, brachytherapy is more targeted, causes fewer side effects, and doesn’t last as long as conventional radiation therapy, which uses an external beam outside the body to project radiation into cells.

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Sometimes you will receive brachytherapy with other forms of cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy or surgery.

Brachytherapy treats several types of cancer, including:

  • Bile duct cancer
  • Brain cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Endometrial tumor
  • Esophageal cancer
  • Eye cancer
  • Tumors of the head and neck
  • Lung cancer
  • Cancer of the pancreas
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Rectal cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Soft tissue neoplasms
  • Vaginal cancer

Radioembolization Y90: This liver cancer treatment has two stages. In the first, a catheter is inserted into the artery that supplies blood to the liver. The doctor then uses a special dye so that he can “map” other arteries that have something to do with your liver. this second step is when the radiation goes in. It is put on tiny particles that can be made of glass or resin. thisn, after double-checking the positioning, the radiation goes into the liver artery. this particles stick into the cancer and release the radiation directly into the tumor.

Sources

Stanford Health Care: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging. “

UCSF Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging: “Nuclear Medicine Procedure: How to Prepare & Safety. “

Medycyna Johnsa Hopkinsa: "Co to jest medycyna nuklearna?"

CDC: "Procedury medycyny nuklearnej."

American Cancer Society: “Nuclear Medicine Scans for Cancer, ” “Radioactive Iodine (RadioIodine) thisrapy for Thyroid Cancer. “

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute: "Co to jest radioimmunotherapy?"

Mayo Clinic: “Brachytherapy. “

University of Rochester Medical Center: “Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: Radioimmunotherapy (RIT). "

You will have blood tests to help diagnose bone cancer.

Why are you doing blood tests

Blood analysis can:

  • check your general health, including liver and kidney function
  • check the number of blood cells
  • help diagnose cancer and other conditions

Your blood sample will be sent to the lab. The blood doctor can view the sample under a microscope.

thisy can see the different types of cells and can count the different blood cells. thisy can also test for different kinds of chemicals and proteins in the blood.

Preparation for blood tests

You can eat and drink normally before most blood tests. To take a blood test on an empty stomach, you need to stop eating and drinking early. Your doctor will tell you for how long.

What is happening?

You sit down or go to the test.

A doctor, nurse, or phlebotomist (someone who specializes in blood sampling) will choose the best vein to use. It is usually from your hand or hand. Let them know if you are afraid of needles, if you feel sick from the sight of blood, or if you are allergic to patches or latex.

thisy put a tight band (tourniquet) around your arm above the area where they take the sample. You may need to punch to find the vein more easily.

thisy clean your skin and then put a small needle into your vein. Then they attach a small bottle or syringe to the needle to draw blood. thisy might fill several small bottles.

Once they have all the samples, they let the armband wrap around your arm. thisy then take the needle out and put pressure on the area with a cotton wool ball or small piece of gauze for a few minutes. This helps stop bleeding and bruising.

Look away when they’re taking the blood if you prefer. Tell your doctor, nurse or phlebotomist if you feel unwell.

Types of blood tests

Blood exam completed

Blood exam completed (FBC) mierzy liczbę czerwonych krwinek, białych krwinek i płytek krwi we krwi.

  • Red blood cells carry oxygen in our body. Hemoglobin is the part of the cell that carries oxygen. If you have a low red cell count, your doctor might say you’re anaemic (pronounced a-nee-mic). This can make you tired, out of breath and dizzy.
  • White blood cells fight infections. thisre are several different types of white cells, including neutrophils and lymphocytes.
  • Platelets help blood clot. Symptoms of a low platelet count include abnormal bleeding such as bleeding gums and nosebleeds.

thisre isn’t an exact range of normal for blood counts. this range of figures quoted as normal varies slightly between laboratories and also differs between men and women.

How to diagnose bone cancer

Urea and electrolytes

thisse blood tests show how well your kidneys are working. Chemical wastes called urea and creatinine are produced by the body. Our kidneys remove them from our blood and excrete them in the urine.

Electrolytes are substances like sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate.

Tumor markers

If you have osteosarcoma, your doctor will measure your ALP (alkaline phosphatase) levels. This chemical is found in the blood and is a measure of bone activity. If you have bone cancer, the activity level of the bone cells in the affected bone may be higher than normal. Not everyone with osteosarcoma has high levels of ALP.

If you have Ewing’s sarcoma, your doctor will measure your LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) level. It can be high and can affect the treatments you can take.

Possible dangers

Taking blood (phlebotomy) is a safe test. thisre is a possibility of:

  • bleeding and bruising: Pushing hard after removing the needle can help stop it
  • pain – usually mild and can last for several minutes
  • swelling (edema) – ask your nurse, doctor, or phlebotomist to avoid a swollen or swollen hand
  • feeling faint or faint – tell the person doing the blood test if they feel dizzy or dizzy at any time
  • infection – it is very rare

Get results

Ask the phlebotomist, your doctor or nurse when you will get the results and who will get them. Some results may be available quickly. For example, a complete blood count.