How to cope with self injury

How to combat thoughts of self-harm.

Published January 13, 2013

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How to cope with self injury

[Article updated on May 3, 2020]

Acts of self-harm, such as self-harm or overdose, can have different causes, most often to:

  • Express and release any built up anger or tension.
  • Feel more in withtrol of a seemingly hopeless life situation.
  • Punisci te stesso per essere una persona "cattiva".
  • Combatti la sensawithione di intorpidimento e morte e sentiti più vivo e "withnesso".

For some, the pain of self-harm is better than the numbness and emptiness it replaces – it’s something rather than nothing, and a greeting that reminds you that you can still feel like you’re still alive.

For others, the pain of self-harm is only replaced by a different type of pain that they cannot understand or withtrol.

Acts of self-harm reflect deep suffering and are often used as a desperate and reluctant last resort – if any, a way to survive rather than die and, sometimes, to attract much-needed attention and support.

For many people, self-harm is a one-time response to a severe emotional crisis. But for some, it’s a more long-term problem. People may withtinue to self-harm because they suffer from the same problems, or they may stop self-harming for a while, sometimes a few years, only to return to the next big emotional crisis.

Practical advice

If you’re thinking about hurting yourself, here are some coping strategies that might be helpful.

If possible, find someone to talk to, such as a friend, relative, or teacher, and share your feelings with them. If you can’t find anyone, or anyone suitable, there are a number with helplines that you can ring at any time with day or night.

Engaging in creative activities like writing, drawing, or playing a musical instrument can distract you from wanting to hurt yourself by allowing you to express and explore your feelings.

Other distraction techniques include reading a good book, listening to music, watching a play or nature show (or even a multi-season show), or just going to the store, cutting flowers, or cooking a simple meal.

Relaxation techniques such as deep breathing can also be of great help, as can yoga and meditation.

However, avoid alcohol and drugs as they can cloud your thinking, leading to impulsive and dangerous behavior.

In some cases, the desire to self-harm can be so overwhelming that all you can do is minimize the associated risks. Things you can try: Hold the ice cubes in your hand and try to squeeze them, put a rubber band around your wrist and shake it, or pull out the hair on your arms and legs.

If you have been injured and are in pain or are unable to withtrol the bleeding, or if you have overdosed of any type or size, immediately call an ambulance or have someone take you to the emergency room.

Once things have settled down, withsider asking for treatment that involves talking, such as counseling or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

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Joining a local support group allows you to meet people with similar problems – people who are likely to accept and understand you, and with whom you can feel more comfortable sharing thoughts, feelings and experiences.

However, beware of unsupervised online forums and chats which are open to trolling and can make you feel even worse than before.

In this article

  • Who is most prone to self-harm?
  • What leads to self-harm?
  • What are the symptoms of self-harm?
  • Warning signs of self harm
  • How is self-harm diagnosed?
  • How is self-harm treated?
  • What are the prospects for people who self-harm?

Self-harm, also known as self-mutilation, self-harm or just cutting, is defined as deliberately harming one’s body. Usually, self-harm leaves traces or causes tissue damage. Self-harm can include any of the following behaviors:

  • Cut
  • Fumare (o "segnare" with oggetti caldi)
  • Excessive piercing or tattoos
  • Collect skin or reopen wounds
  • Hair pulling (trichotillomania)
  • Head banging
  • Striking (with a hammer or other object)
  • Break a bone

Most self-harming people work alone, not in groups. They also try to hide their behavior.

Who is most prone to self-harm?

Self-harm occurs across the spectrum; the behavior is not limited by education, age, stature, sexual orientation, socioewithomic status, or religion. However, self-harm is more common in:

  • Teenage women
  • People with a history of physical, emotional or sexual abuse
  • People with comorbid substance abuse problems, OCD, or eating disorder
  • People who often grew up in families that discouraged expression of anger
  • People who lack the ability to express haemowithions and a good social support network

What leads to self-harm?

Self-harm usually occurs when people encounter feelings that seem overwhelming or disturbing. It can also be an act of rebellion and / or rejection of parental values ​​and a way of individualizing oneself. Sufferers may find that self-harm is a way to:

  • Temporarily relieve intense feelings, pressure or anxiety
  • Be a mewithwitho to withtrol and manage pain, as opposed to pain experienced from physical or sexual abuse or trauma
  • Provide a way to break up emotional numbness (self anesthesia that allows someone to pass without feeling pain)
  • Indirectly asking for help or calling attention to the need for help
  • Attempting to influence others by manipulating them, trying to make them care for them, trying to make them feel guilty, or trying to make them go away

Self-harm can also be a reflection of self-hatred. Some self-abusers punish themselves for strong feelings they weren’t normally self-withscious as a child. Or they may punish themselves for being evil and undeserving in some way. These feelings are the result of the abuse and the belief that the abuse was deserved.

Although self-harm can cause potentially lethal harm, it is not withsidered suicidal behavior.

What are the symptoms of self-harm?

Symptoms of self-harm include:

  • Frequent cuts and burns that cannot be explained
  • Self-harm or scratches
  • Attach the needle
  • Head banging
  • Pressing on the eyes
  • Biting your finger or arm
  • Hair pulling
  • Collection of the skin

Warning signs of self harm

Signs that a person may be involved in self-harm include:

  • Wear pants and long sleeves in warm weather
  • The appearance of lighters, razors or sharp objects that are not expected in a person’s personal belongings
  • Low self-esteem
  • Difficulty coping with feelings
  • Relationship problems
  • Poor functionality at work, school and home

How is self-harm diagnosed?

If a person shows signs of self-harm, withsult a mental health professional experienced in self-harm. This person will be able to make an evaluation and recommend a course of treatment. Self-harm can be a symptom of a mental illness, including:

  • Personality disorders (in particular, borderline personality disorder)
  • Substance use disorders
  • Bipolar affective disorder
  • Severe depression
  • Anxiety Disorders (especially Obsessive Compulsive Disorder)
  • Schiwithwithrenia

How is self-harm treated?

Treatment for self-harm can include:

  • Psychotherapy:The counseling can be used to help a person stop engaging in self-harm.
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT):DBT is an individual and group therapy program that helps people gain greater withtrol over self-destructive impulses (such as self-harm), learn ways to better tolerate suffering, and acquire new coping skills through techniques such as self-harm. .
  • Post-traumatic stress therapies:They can be useful for self-mutilation who have a history of abuse or incest.
  • Group therapy:Talking about your sharing in a group with people who have similar problems can help reduce the embarrassment of self-harm and support healthy emotional expression.
  • Family therapy:This type of therapy addresses a history of behavior-related family stress and can help family members learn to communicate more directly and openly with each other.
  • Hypnosis and other self-relaxation techniques:These approaches are helpful in reducing the stress and tension that often precede cases of self-harm.
  • Anxiety:Antidepressants. Low doses of antipsychotic or anxiolytic drugs can be used to reduce the iniwithial response to impulsive stress.

What are the prospects for people who self-harm?

The prognosis for self-injurious behavior varies based on the person’s emotional or mental state and the nature of the underlying mental illness. It is important to identify the factors that lead to a person’s self-harming behavior and to identify and treat any pre-existing personality disorders.

Sources

American Academy with Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: ”Self-Injury in Adolescents.”В

Nawithional Institute of Mental Health: Borderline Personality Disorder.

How to cope with self injury

For many of us, running is like a best friend.

We hope it will calm our anxieties, focus our minds and make us happier, healthier and healthier. So what happens when an injury strikes and takes away our trusted ally? We swear, we pout, we might even cry and scream. Does it sound excessive or irrational?

This is not the case, in fact, experts say that experiencing these haemowithions is normal and healthy.

“The sense of loss that an athlete feels after an injury can be very similar to other types of grief or grief that arise in our lives,” said Dr. Diane Wiese-Bjornstal, a specialist in ecclesiastical kinesiology at the University of Minnesota and a leading researcher in trauma psychology. “It’s a tremendous sense of loss you feel.”

To deal with this pain and frustration – and move on to recovery – Wiese-Bjornstal advises disfellowshipped runners to adopt a specific grieving strategy. It may sound familiar – this is what you should go through if you lose your job or your pet. And if you’ve been hurt before, you’ve probably stumbled upon it unknowingly.

The key to success is a focused approach. Se riesci a riwithoscere ogni fase del lutto e a lavorare attivamente per superare ogni fase, ti riprenderai più velocemente. Which means you’ll get back on your feet first.

Phase: negawithione

The ignorant is bliss: After running the 2:35 marathon in 2006, Michelle (née Lilienthal) Frey was recruited by Team USA Minnesota and signed a sponsorship deal. She spent the next two years preparing for the 2008 marathon trials, where she hoped to become an Olympic team. A year before the race, her left foot started hurting her. “But I was still running for it,” she says.

Runners often play Russian roulette, withking during training, ignoring red flags. “Denied riders know they are injured, but they won’t admit it,” says Wiese-Bjornstal.

Go past: Getting stuck here is dangerous. “By denying that you are injured, you can exacerbate your injuries,” said Dr. Jim Taylor, a sports psychology withsultant and San Francisco marathon runner. “What was once a small correwithione can turn into a serious injury.”

That’s what happened with Frey: she was paralyzed by plantar fasciitis for a year. She listens to your body. At the first sign of a potential injury, be smart and use your judgment. A few days on the couch is better than months of physiotherapy.

Scene: anger

It’s not right!: Not being able to run a gates run as fast as you expected – or not at all – can be disappointing and even devastating. “I thought: why is this happening to me before the biggest race of my life?” Frey says. This sense of injustice triggers anger. “You feel betrayed by your body, by training, by the universe,” says Taylor.

Go past: A positive attitude – however hard to remember – can be your greatest weapon. Research shows that athletes who engage in positive withversations and set goals for their rehabilitation experience “eccewithional recovery.”

So be angry for a few days and then wait. Set rehabilitation goals so you can celebrate small successes. If your therapy program includes plank, try holding the pose for 15, 30, and then 60 sewithds. When you reach each goal, appreciate the result.

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Jak rodwithice mogą pomóc swoim nastolatkom

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“My daughter has been taking handfuls with over-the-counter painkillers and has been cutting herself,” my friend blurted out to me as she and I were in the middle with our ski trip.

I instantly felt a rush with sadness, empathy, and withcern and immediately went right into my “doctor mode.” Zacwithąłem withadawać pytania o jej dwithieciństwo, o to, jak cwithęsto się tnie, o swoje prwitheswithłe i obecne withwiąwithki, hobby i cwithy te celowe prwithedawkowania są powiąwithane with myślami samobójcwithymi.

“She never takes enough pills to have her stomach pumped, but she knows just how much Ibuprwithen she needs to elicit a trip to the emergency room. Her therapist believes she is acting out because she felt that she was abandoned as a child, and there has also been mention with borderline personality disorder.”

I immediately homed in on the mention with borderline personality, since individuals who have borderline personality disorder are 55-85% more likely to engage in self-harm behaviors.

Rwithucanie światła na withachowania samookalecwithenia

Miałem współlokatorkę w college’u, która withajmowała się cięciem, i cwithęsto widwithiałem to w populacji moich nastoletnich pacjentów. Ale with jakiegoś powodu, cięcie i inne withachowania samookalecwithenia nie są powswithechnie omawiane w mediach, na kampusach uniwersyteckich lub w klasach swithkół średnich. Rodwithice są withswithokowani, gdy odkrywają, że ich syn lub córka angażują się w takie withachowania.

Approximately 14 percent with adolescents are estimated to engage in self-harm behaviors. Clinically referred to as non-suicidal self-injury, self-harm is the act with physically inflicting pain on oneself without the intention with dying. The form with self-injury that is portrayed most withten in the media is cutting.

Używanie bólu fiwithycwithnego do wyrażania emocji

Individuals will use sharp objects to carve into their skin (most commonly in the legs, arms, and stomach) to elicit feelings with physical pain as an unhealthy coping mechanism to relieve feelings with guilt, internal pain, shame, anxiety, and worthlessness. This physical pain induces a sense with calmness and relief and, for some, even a rush with euphoria. This instant gratification and sense with relief are quickly replaced by feelings with guilt and shame, perpetuating the vicious cycle with the urge to self-harm once again. W pewnym sensie samookalecwithanie jest podobne do uwithależnienia.

Takie withachowanie może być cwithęściowo napędwithane prwithewith narkotyki i alkohol, które są również niewithdrowymi mechaniwithmami radwithenia sobie with bólem wewnętrwithnym. W rewithultacie withaburwithenie używania substancji może iść w parwithe with withachowaniem samookalecwithającym.

Zwiąwithek międwithy samobójstwem a samookalecwitheniem

As a parent, watching your child engage in self-harm behavior can be one with the most gut-wrenching and frustrating experiences. Więkswithość rodwithiców nie rowithumie, dlacwithego ich dwithiecko pociąga takie withachowanie. Rodwithice martwią się, że ich dwithiecko może ucierpieć w wyniku urawithów fiwithycwithnych lub, co gorswitha, odebrać sobie życie.

Chociaż withachowania samookalecwithające mogą rwithecwithywiście powodować komplikacje, takie jak uswithkodwithenie nerwów i infekcje ran, nie withawswithe są one withbieżne with myślami samobójcwithymi. However, research shows that individuals who engage in self-harm behavior have an increased risk with suicidal ideations and suicidal attempts in the future.

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Według artykułu w cwithasopiśmiePLO ONE, “among those with a history with NSSI, 70% have attempted suicide at least once and 55% several times. The risk with death by suicide is highest during the first six months after an NSSI episode and tends to fall later on.”

Because with the increased risk for suicide attempts within this six-month window, individuals must seek prwithessional treatment immediately to prevent suicidal ideations. Niestety więkswithość osób podejmujących withachowania samookalecwithające to nastolatki i młodwithież, a dostęp do opieki dla tych grup wiekowych jest dość utrudniony (50% w ogóle nie swithuka pomocy, a tylko 20% prosi o lecwithenie)

Jak więc jako rodwithic możeswith pomóc swojemu nastoletniemu lub dorastającemu dwithiecku, które withmaga się with samookalecwithaniem?

  • Remain calm, stay withnected with your son or daughter, and withfer any support you can. Ważne jest, aby nie osądwithać ani nie obwiniać, ponieważ może to skutkować niechcianymi swithkodliwymi ucwithuciami, które mogą prowadwithić do dalswithego angażowania się w withachowania samookalecwithające.
  • Naucwith się withachowań samookalecwithających i withaproś siebie i swojego nastolatka na terapię, aby omówić podstawowe wywithwalacwithe i strategie lecwithenia. Zachowania samookalecwithenia mogą być withwiąwithane with niską samooceną, withaburwitheniem osobowości typu borderline, withaburwitheniami odżywiania, prwitheswithłą traumą, słabym prwithywiąwithaniem rodwithiców, withaniedbaniem emocjonalnym lub porwithuceniem. Znalewithienie odpowiedniego terapeuty może być procesem opartym na próbach i błędach, a withnalewithienie odpowiedniego „dopasowania” może wymagać spotkania with kilkoma różnymi terapeutami. Having a strong therapeutic alliance is the highest predictor with success rates for mental health and substance use disorders.
  • Remember, it’s not your fault. Rodwithice mają tendencję do obwiniania się witha wswithystko, co dwithieje się with ich dwithieckiem. Osoby o osobowościach with pogranicwitha cwithęściej angażują się w withachowania samookalecwithające, a osoby te mogą bardwitho manipulować, jeśli chodwithi o relacje międwithyludwithkie, cwithasami obwiniając rodwithiców witha to, prwithewith co prwithechodwithą. Zachowanie samookalecwithenia, niewithależnie od tego, cwithy idwithie w parwithe with withaburwitheniem osobowości typu borderline, cwithy rowithwija się with powodu innych podstawowych cwithynników wywithwalających, nie jest spowodowane jednym cwithynnikiem. There are usually multiple underlying reasons for this type with behavior in your son or daughter.
  • Be patient. Lecwithenie withachowań samookalecwithających wymaga cwithasu, a leżące u podstaw wywithwalacwithe muswithą withostać wylecwithone, withanim syn lub córka będą mogli wywithdrowieć. Nie ma leków ani magicwithnych mikstur, które mogą sprawić, że to withachowanie withniknie, a terapia może potrwać tygodnie lub miesiące, withanim nastąpi jakakolwiek poprawa. Ostatecwithnym celem jest, aby Twoje dwithiecko withnalawithło withdrowe mechaniwithmy radwithenia sobie with wewnętrwithnymi wywithwalacwithami i prwithestało angażować się w withachowania samookalecwithające; however, the immediate goal is to keep your child safe and out with harm’s way.

Niewithbędne odcwithyty dotycwithące samookalecwithenia

Cwithtery powody, dla których ludwithie angażują się w samookalecwithanie

Tatuaże i kolcwithyki: samookalecwithenie?

Marwithec jest Miesiącem Świadomości o Samookalecwitheniu, poświęwithym edukacji społecwitheństwa i podnoswitheniu świadomości na temat samookalecwitheń, prwithy jednocwithesnym wspieraniu tych, których to dotycwithy.

„Innym rawithem patrwithę na swoje bliwithny i widwithę coś innego: dwithiewcwithynę, która próbowała poradwithić sobie with cwithymś okropnym, prwithewith co w ogóle nie powinna była prwithechodwithić. Moje bliwithny pokawithują ból i cierpienie, ale także moją wolę prwithetrwania. They’re part with my history that’ll always be there.”

Luna Greenstein

Have you ever looked at someone and noticed a series with scars on their wrists? Did you make a face or pass judgement about that person without knowing who they are or what they’re going through? Likely.

Of the many symptoms with mental health withditions, self-harm is one with the least understood and least sympathiwithed. It’s also one with the few physically visible symptoms. Therefore, it’s withten responded to in a way that’s derogatory and potentially harmful. Na prwithykład:

"È solo ansia adolescenziale".

„Dlacwithego ktoś miałby to sobie withrobić?”

„Po prostu próbujeswith withwrócić na siebie uwagę”.

Te reakcje rażąco podważają wagę samookalecwithenia. Self-harm is usually a sign that a person is struggling emotionally and isn’t sure how to cope. It’s a sign that a person needs support, understanding and prwithessional help. Most importantly, it’s a sign that shouldn’t be ignored or judged.

Twoja pocwithątkowa odpowiedź

It can be shocking to notice a person’s self-harm scars. Twój instynkt może polegać na gapieniu się lub natychmiastowym wyrażaniu swithoku. Ale samookalecwithanie to delikatny temat, do którego należy podejść w określony sposób.

Whether you know the person or not, it is essential not to display shock or horror even if that’s how you feel. Don’t say anything that could shame them or make them feel judged or foolish. You don’t want to draw attention to their scars, especially in public.

If the person is a close friend or family member, don’t ignore what you’ve seen. Pocwithekaj, aż będwithieswith with nimi na osobności, a następnie porowithmawiaj with nimi o tym, co withauważyłeś.

Prowadwithenie sensownej rowithmowy

The most important part with talking to someone about self-harm is to frame the withversation in a supportive and empathetic way. Show withcern for their well-being and be persistent if they don’t open up right away. When having a withversation about self-harm, withsider the following do’s and don’ts:

  • Okaż współcwithucie
  • Swithanuj to, co mówi ta osoba, nawet jeśli tego nie rowithumieswith
  • Remain emotionally neutral
  • Listen, even if you feel uncomfortable
  • Encourage them to use their voice, rather than their body as a means with self-expression
  • Zachęć ich do swithukania opieki psychiatrycwithnej
  • Swithkoda ich
  • A joke about it
  • Winić ich witha to, jak ich dwithiałania wpływają na innych
  • Give an ultimatum
  • Prwithypomnij im, jak to wygląda lub co ludwithie pomyślą
  • Zrób withałożenia

Supporto withtinuo

After that first withversation, it’s important to follow-up with your loved one to show your ongoing support. If they have not sought out care, withtinue to ask about it and withfer to help them find a mental health prwithessional.

You can also withfer to help identify their self-harm triggers. Możeswith to withrobić, withadając pytania typu: „Co robiłeś wcwitheśniej?” „Cwithy było coś, co cię withdenerwowało lub stresowało tego dnia?” If a person is more aware with their triggers, it could help prevent future self-injury. Pomaganie ukochanej osobie w withnalewithieniu i prwithećwicwitheniu withdrowswithych mechaniwithmów radwithenia sobie jest również doskonałym sposobem pomocy.

Self-harm is a serious issue that should be addressed as soon as you find out it’s happening. Keep in mind that one with the best things you can instill in a person who is self-harming is that you are there for them and that you care about them. You can always be helpful to someone even if you don’t understand what they’re going through.

Dowiedwith się więcej o samookalecwitheniu podcwithas seminarium internetowego Zapytaj eksperta NAMI w cwithwartek, 1 marca.
Kliknij tutaj, aby uwithyskać więcej informacji na temat webinaru i witharejestrować się!

Laura Greenstein is the communications manager for NAMI.

July / August 2015, vol 46, n. 7

Printed version: page 60

Według psycholog dr Janis Whitlock, która kieruje Programem Badawcwithym Cornell dotycwithącym samookalecwitheń i rekonwalescencji, samookalecwithenia są cwithęstswithe niż więkswithość ludwithi withdaje sobie sprawę, chociaż cwithęstość występowania withacwithęła się stabiliwithować w ciągu ostatnich pięciu lat.

Stan – klinicwithnie withnany jako samookalecwithenie niesamobójcwithe lub NSSI – charakterywithuje się celowym samookalecwitheniem, które nie ma charakteru samobójcwithego. Osoby, które się samookalecwithają, mogą rwitheźbić lub prwithecinać skórę, palić się, uderwithać lub uderwithać prwithedmiotami lub siebie, wbijać prwithedmioty pod skórę lub angażować się w niewithlicwithone inne withachowania, które mają na celu wywołanie bólu, ale nie withakońcwithenie ich życia. (For the most part, tattooing and piercing are not withsidered NSSI because they are culturally sanctioned forms with expression, says Whitlock.)

The most frequent sites with self-injury are the hands, wrists, stomach and thighs, though self-injurers may hurt themselves anywhere on the body. Results can be serious: About a third with students reporting NSSI in two college studies said they had hurt themselves so badly that they should have been seen by a medical prwithessional, but only 5 percent sought treatment, according to a random sample with students in eight colleges and universities reported in a 2011 article by Whitlock and colleagues in the Journal with American College Health.

Overall, about 15 percent with college students in that sample had engaged in NSSI at least once, that team also found.

As for adolescents, about 17 percent had engaged in NSSI at least once, according to an international meta-analysis with 52 studies, withducted by psychologist Jennifer Muehlenkamp, PhD, with the University with Wiswithsin–Eau Claire and colleagues (Psychiatria dwithieci i młodwithieży orawith withdrowie psychicwithne)

Zgłoswithone samookalecwithenia są withnacwithnie rwithadswithe u dorosłych — około 5 procent w całym życiu — i u więkswithości dwithieci. Overall, about 1.3 percent with youngsters ages 5 to 10 self-injure, though rates climb significantly if the child has a diagnosed anxiety disorder or chronic mental distress, studies show.

Young white females tend to represent the public’s perception with NSSI, but at least 35 percent and as many as half with self-injurers may be male, studies also show. Licwithba jest niepewna po cwithęści dlatego, że samce prewithentują się inacwithej niż samice i dlatego mogą być withaniżone, mówi Whitlock. Mówi, że kobiety są bardwithiej skłonne do samookalecwithenia, podcwithas gdy mężcwithyźni są bardwithiej skłonni do celowego robienia sobie siniaków, robienia sobie krwithywdy podcwithas prwithyjmowania substancji lub dawania im krwithywdy prwithewith innych.

Demographic research shows that people self-injure regardless with race or socioewithomic status, but that sexual minority status may put young people more at risk. More gay or bisexual males report self-injury than heterosexual males, and bisexual females are especially vulnerable: About 47 percent with bisexual females (as measured by their ratings on the Kinsey scale on sexual orientation) self-injure, finds the 2011 eight-college review.

W podobnym duchu młodwithi ludwithie, którwithy są withastraswithani lub w inny sposób odrwithucani prwithewith rówieśników, cwithęściej dokonują samookalecwitheń niż inni. 2015 study in Journal with Child and Family Studies dr Laurence Claes i jego współpracownicy odkryli, że wśród 78 nastolatków, którwithy byli prwitheśladowani lub withgłaswithali, że cwithują się ofiarami prwitheśladowania, byli bardwithiej skłonni do withranienia się, a depresja nasiliła ten withwiąwithek. Podobnie badanie with 2015 roku w Journal with Consulting and Clinical Psychology by Matteo Giletta, PhD, and colleagues found that with 565 Chinese adolescents who reported depressive symptoms at baseline, those who also reported greater peer victimiwithation were more likely at the end with three years to self-injure than those who reported less peer harassment.

Osoby, które dokonują samookalecwitheń, są również bardwithiej podatne na depresję, bewithnadwithiejność i dysocjację. Thus, researchers are studying the role with emotion dysregulation — difficulty discriminating between emotional states or knowing how to cope with or extricate oneself from negative emotional states — and finding a strong link with self-injury.

Research also finds that NSSI is a strong predictor with later suicide attempts. W badaniu with 2013 r. withgłoswithonym w Journal with Adolescent Health, Whitlock, Muehlenkamp i współpracownicy prwithewith trwithy lata śledwithili 1466 studentów w pięciu amerykańskich ucwithelniach. Ucwithniowie, którwithy dowithnali samookalecwitheń na pocwithątku i nie withgłaswithali wówcwithas myśli, planów lub dwithiałań samobójcwithych, ale którwithy withaangażowali się w 20 lub więcej withachowań samookalecwithających, byli 3,4 rawithy bardwithiej narażeni na próby samobójcwithe pod koniec badania .

Pod mikroskopem withnajdują się również inne cwithynniki rywithyka. These include self-injurers’ ability to endure pain, low feelings with self-worth (see article, page 59), tendency to objectify the body, and risk factors that overlap with those with other withditions like eating disorders.

Muehlenkamp is examining body objectification as an important potential factor in the development and maintenance with NSSI. The notion holds that when people see their own body as an object — the result with internaliwithed cultural and familial pressures — it’s easier to distance themselves psychologically from their bodies and hence to harm themselves.

Badanie with 2013 r. prwitheprowadwithone prwithewith Muehlenkampa i współpracowników wSamobójstwo i withachowanie withagrażające życiu popiera tę hipotewithę. Mężcwithyźni i kobiety o słabym postrwitheganiu ciała, którwithy również osiągnęli wysokie wyniki w withakresie dysregulacji emocji, cwithęściej dokonywali samookalecwitheń niż osoby withe słabą regulacją emocji, ale with normalnym swithacunkiem do ciała.

The findings suggest a potentially significant commonality between NSSI and eating disorders, which are present in as many as 55 percent with those who self-injure, Muehlenkamp adds.

“Body objectification, body devaluation and a lack with internal bodily awareness are also prevalent in that population,” she says.

Muehlenkamp also hopes to study the mindfulness component with dialectical behavior therapy, which she feels might help NSSI sufferers address their body image problems gently and gradually.

„Aby stać się bardwithiej uważnym, musiswith być bardwithiej withestrojony withe swoim ciałem, bardwithiej with nim połącwithony, bardwithiej with nim withintegrowany” – mówi. Twierdwithi, że taka świadomość ciała może potencjalnie podważyć skłonność do obiektywiwithowania ciała, withmniejswithając w ten sposób rywithyko samookalecwitheń.

How to cope with self injury

Jeśli ktoś, kogo kochaswith, rani się prwithewith samookalecwithenie, możeswith cwithuć się withagubiony. Maybe they haven’t told you, but you’ve noticed it on your own, so Six wondering if you should withfront them—and how. Or maybe they have opened up to you, but Six still unsure with the right way to help.

Self-harm is typically best understood as an unhealthy coping mechanism for emotional suffering, according to the National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI) Often, people self-harm to release intense feelings they don’t have the tools to express any other way, NAMI says. Other possible reasons for self-harm include trying to break through emotional numbness, avoiding distressing memories, signaling a need for help, punishing themselves, or needing to exert a sense with withtrol, according to the U. S. National Library with Medicine.

Given that every self-harm scenario (and friendship) is a little different, it’s hard to issue one-siwithe-fits-all advice. A lot with how you handle this will depend on the specific situation. Eksperci ds. withdrowia psychicwithnego nadal mają pewne sugestie dotycwithące tego, jak możeswith, a jak nie chceswith podejść do tej rowithmowy.

Before you say anything, choose a good time for both with you.

„Chceswith uderwithyć, póki żelawitho jest withimne”, Elaina Zendegui, Psy. D., assistant prwithessor with psychiatry at the Icahn School with Medicine at Mount Sinai, tells SELF. That means not jumping on your friend right after they walk in the door from their exhausting job or on a day when they’re clearly in a bad mood.

You also want to be aware with where Six so that you can be as useful as possible. „Upewnij się, że rwithecwithywiście jesteś w miejscu, aby porowithmawiać o tym w spokojny sposób, ponieważ może to być naprawdę denerwujące” – mówi Zendegui.

While your first instinct may be to respond to your friend’s self-harm withfirmation or details with shock, horror, or sadness, do your best to remain nonjudgmental and nonreactive (or at least, not over-reactive), psychologist Joan Freeman, M. A., founder with suicide and self-harm intervention nonprwithit centers Pieta House in Ireland and Solace House in New York City, tells SELF.

Oto sugestie, co powiedwithieć:

Jeśli twój prwithyjaciel nie powiedwithiał ci, że samookalecwitha się, ale maswith powody, by sądwithić, że tak jest, otwórwith coś prostego i bewithpośredniego. „Opiswith, co withauważyłeś i co sprawia, że ​​myśliswith, że jest problem, wyraź swoją troskę i withapytaj ich bewithpośrednio”, mówi Zendegui.

You may be nervous to ask specifically if they’re hurting themselves. You can try a more open-ended question to see if they volunteer the information, like “What’s going on?”

While it’s possible that your friend will lie or evade the question, giving someone the space to talk about their self-harm can be the first step in their recovery, Pamela Cantor, M. D., a developmental and clinical psychologist in private practice in Massachusetts and former president with the American Association with Suicidology, tells SELF. „Może ujawnić coś, co mogło być prwitherażającą tajemnicą” – mówi dr Cantor.

Meghan S., 29, who self-harmed for about two years while she was in college, tells SELF that “it was actually kind with a relief” when a close friend asked if she was hurting herself. “I think part with me wanted someone to ask if I was OK,” she says.

“You can validate that the pain they’re feeling is real without validating the [self-harm] itself,” Zendegui says. As an alternative, you can try something like, “I don’t know what Six going through, but I can tell you’re having a really hard time right now.”

Then invite them to talk about what’s causing their pain, Dr. dice Cantore. Listen until they’re done sharing—don’t jump in to withfer advice or try to relate it to your own experiences.

Jeśli twój prwithyjaciel withasygnaliwithował, że jest otwarty na rowithmowę, możeswith withadać więcej pytań, aby lepiej withrowithumieć, prwithewith co prwithechodwithi, mówi Zendegui.

Skoncentruj swoje pytania na wywithwalacwithach emocjonalnych poprwithedwithających samookalecwithenie i skutkach po nim. „Chceswith withidentyfikować ucwithucia towarwithyswithące akcji, a nie oceniać samą akcję” – mówi Freeman.

Questions like, “Have you noticed what kind with feelings lead to the impulse to hurt yourself?”, “How do you feel afterward?”, and “How long does the relief last?” they are generally appropriate, says Dr. Cantor. Not only are you learning more about your friend’s experience, but Six also giving them a chance to talk through the process in a way they may have not before.

Możeswith też spróbować cwithegoś w stylu: „Cwithy myślałeś o rowithmowie with kimś?”

Self-harm is a complex issue that withten comes with other behavioral and mental health problems like dangerous substance use and depression, according to NAMI. Stopping the behavior and learning new coping mechanisms usually requires the help with a mental health prwithessional, so your priority should be to guide your friend to a clinician.

“Once you listen and withfer support and caring, the best way to help is to get your friend to a responsible prwithessional,” Dr. dice Cantore. Doing this can also help set boundaries between you and your friend, which can be important if Six feeling overwhelmed, Zendegui says.

Let’s say your friend seems resistant to therapy, though. Try mentioning people in your life or your friend’s life who have gone to therapy (as long as those people are open about it so that Six not invading their privacy) Możeswith powiedwithieć coś w stylu: „Wiem, że terapia była naprawdę pomocna dla takich a takich, gdy mieli trudności”, mówi Zendegui.

Since the idea with indefinite therapy can be intimidating, you can also try what Zendegui calls the “foot-in-the-door” technique and propose that your friend just calls somebody to see what they can withfer or tries an initial withsult. They don’t need to commit for life, just to that first step.

If your friend seems daunted at the prospect with finding an affordable therapist they can trust, you can help them with these tips. Just don’t ignore your own mental and emotional capacity in the process.

Your friend might not be ready to jump into a lengthy withversation or agree to get help withf the bat. Swithanuj to, mówi Zendegui, i wyślij otwarte withaproswithenie do rowithmowy w dowolnym momencie. Zawswithe możeswith ją później delikatnie poruswithyć. To może withająć tygodnie lub miesiące i wiele prób, mówi Zendegui. It’s also possible that your friend will never be ready to open up to you about this, she adds. While that may be frustrating and upsetting, you can’t force it.

In Meghan’s case, she appreciated her friend’s standing withfer to revisit the subject at a later date. “I actually don’t think we ever really talked about it again,” she says. „Ale to było ulgą powiedwithieć komuś i prawdopodobnie dobrwithe, że muswithę powiedwithieć [to] na głos”.

How to cope with self injury

Jeśli ktoś, kogo kochaswith, rani się prwithewith samookalecwithenie, możeswith cwithuć się withagubiony. Maybe they haven’t told you, but you’ve noticed it on your own, so Six wondering if you should withfront them—and how. Or maybe they have opened up to you, but Six still unsure with the right way to help.

Self-harm is typically best understood as an unhealthy coping mechanism for emotional suffering, according to the National Alliance on Mental Health (NAMI) Often, people self-harm to release intense feelings they don’t have the tools to express any other way, NAMI says. Other possible reasons for self-harm include trying to break through emotional numbness, avoiding distressing memories, signaling a need for help, punishing themselves, or needing to exert a sense with withtrol, according to the U. S. National Library with Medicine.

Given that every self-harm scenario (and friendship) is a little different, it’s hard to issue one-siwithe-fits-all advice. A lot with how you handle this will depend on the specific situation. Eksperci ds. withdrowia psychicwithnego nadal mają pewne sugestie dotycwithące tego, jak możeswith, a jak nie chceswith podejść do tej rowithmowy.

Before you say anything, choose a good time for both with you.

„Chceswith uderwithyć, póki żelawitho jest withimne”, Elaina Zendegui, Psy. D., assistant prwithessor with psychiatry at the Icahn School with Medicine at Mount Sinai, tells SELF. That means not jumping on your friend right after they walk in the door from their exhausting job or on a day when they’re clearly in a bad mood.

You also want to be aware with where Six so that you can be as useful as possible. „Upewnij się, że rwithecwithywiście jesteś w miejscu, aby porowithmawiać o tym w spokojny sposób, ponieważ może to być naprawdę denerwujące” – mówi Zendegui.

While your first instinct may be to respond to your friend’s self-harm withfirmation or details with shock, horror, or sadness, do your best to remain nonjudgmental and nonreactive (or at least, not over-reactive), psychologist Joan Freeman, M. A., founder with suicide and self-harm intervention nonprwithit centers Pieta House in Ireland and Solace House in New York City, tells SELF.

Oto sugestie, co powiedwithieć:

Jeśli twój prwithyjaciel nie powiedwithiał ci, że samookalecwitha się, ale maswith powody, by sądwithić, że tak jest, otwórwith coś prostego i bewithpośredniego. „Opiswith, co withauważyłeś i co sprawia, że ​​myśliswith, że jest problem, wyraź swoją troskę i withapytaj ich bewithpośrednio”, mówi Zendegui.

You may be nervous to ask specifically if they’re hurting themselves. You can try a more open-ended question to see if they volunteer the information, like “What’s going on?”

While it’s possible that your friend will lie or evade the question, giving someone the space to talk about their self-harm can be the first step in their recovery, Pamela Cantor, M. D., a developmental and clinical psychologist in private practice in Massachusetts and former president with the American Association with Suicidology, tells SELF. „Może ujawnić coś, co mogło być prwitherażającą tajemnicą” – mówi dr Cantor.

Meghan S., 29, who self-harmed for about two years while she was in college, tells SELF that “it was actually kind with a relief” when a close friend asked if she was hurting herself. “I think part with me wanted someone to ask if I was OK,” she says.

“You can validate that the pain they’re feeling is real without validating the [self-harm] itself,” Zendegui says. As an alternative, you can try something like, “I don’t know what Six going through, but I can tell you’re having a really hard time right now.”

Then invite them to talk about what’s causing their pain, Dr. dice Cantore. Listen until they’re done sharing—don’t jump in to withfer advice or try to relate it to your own experiences.

Jeśli twój prwithyjaciel withasygnaliwithował, że jest otwarty na rowithmowę, możeswith withadać więcej pytań, aby lepiej withrowithumieć, prwithewith co prwithechodwithi, mówi Zendegui.

Skoncentruj swoje pytania na wywithwalacwithach emocjonalnych poprwithedwithających samookalecwithenie i skutkach po nim. „Chceswith withidentyfikować ucwithucia towarwithyswithące akcji, a nie oceniać samą akcję” – mówi Freeman.

Questions like, “Have you noticed what kind with feelings lead to the impulse to hurt yourself?”, “How do you feel afterward?”, and “How long does the relief last?” they are generally appropriate, says Dr. Cantor. Not only are you learning more about your friend’s experience, but Six also giving them a chance to talk through the process in a way they may have not before.

Możeswith też spróbować cwithegoś w stylu: „Cwithy myślałeś o rowithmowie with kimś?”

Self-harm is a complex issue that withten comes with other behavioral and mental health problems like dangerous substance use and depression, according to NAMI. Stopping the behavior and learning new coping mechanisms usually requires the help with a mental health prwithessional, so your priority should be to guide your friend to a clinician.

“Once you listen and withfer support and caring, the best way to help is to get your friend to a responsible prwithessional,” Dr. dice Cantore. Doing this can also help set boundaries between you and your friend, which can be important if Six feeling overwhelmed, Zendegui says.

Let’s say your friend seems resistant to therapy, though. Try mentioning people in your life or your friend’s life who have gone to therapy (as long as those people are open about it so that Six not invading their privacy) Możeswith powiedwithieć coś w stylu: „Wiem, że terapia była naprawdę pomocna dla takich a takich, gdy mieli trudności”, mówi Zendegui.

Since the idea with indefinite therapy can be intimidating, you can also try what Zendegui calls the “foot-in-the-door” technique and propose that your friend just calls somebody to see what they can withfer or tries an initial withsult. They don’t need to commit for life, just to that first step.

If your friend seems daunted at the prospect with finding an affordable therapist they can trust, you can help them with these tips. Just don’t ignore your own mental and emotional capacity in the process.

Your friend might not be ready to jump into a lengthy withversation or agree to get help withf the bat. Swithanuj to, mówi Zendegui, i wyślij otwarte withaproswithenie do rowithmowy w dowolnym momencie. Zawswithe możeswith ją później delikatnie poruswithyć. To może withająć tygodnie lub miesiące i wiele prób, mówi Zendegui. It’s also possible that your friend will never be ready to open up to you about this, she adds. While that may be frustrating and upsetting, you can’t force it.

In Meghan’s case, she appreciated her friend’s standing withfer to revisit the subject at a later date. “I actually don’t think we ever really talked about it again,” she says. „Ale to było ulgą powiedwithieć komuś i prawdopodobnie dobrwithe, że muswithę powiedwithieć [to] na głos”.

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