How to add phenolic acids to your diet

H. E. Campbell, Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, Guy’s Hospital, 1st Floor Guy’s Tower, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK.

Tel.: +44 (0) 20 7188 7188 ext. 84128

Fax: +44 (0) 20 7188 4131

London Dental Institute, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

London Dental Institute, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Department of Gastroenterology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Department of Gastroenterology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Correspondence

H. E. Campbell, Nutrition and Dietetic Department, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, Guy’s Hospital, 1st Floor Guy’s Tower, Great Maze Pond, London SE1 9RT, UK.

Tel.: +44 (0) 20 7188 7188 ext. 84128

Fax: +44 (0) 20 7188 4131

London Dental Institute, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

London Dental Institute, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Department of Gastroenterology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences Division, King’s College London (KCL), London, UK

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Department of Gastroenterology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT), London, UK

Abstract

Background

Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a rare disease of unknown cause. A cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet is successful in up to 72% of patients. Phenolic acids are among the chemical constituents restricted in this diet, which avoids some but not all of these structurally similar compounds. The present study aimed to: (i) develop a novel diet low in phenolic acids; (ii) implement this in a small clinical trial; and (iii) assess its nutritional adequacy.

Methods

A literature review identified 10 papers quantifying phenolic acids from which 91 10-mg phenolic acid exchanges were devised. A phenolic acid exclusion diet with precautionary micronutrient supplementation was designed and implemented in 10 patients. Phenolic acids were excluded for 6 weeks and were reintroduced at a rate of one exchange every second day for 6 weeks. Wilcoxon matched pairs tests analysed disease outcomes measured by an oral disease severity scoring tool at weeks 0, 6 and 12. Nutritional adequacy was assessed, excluding micronutrient supplementation, at weeks 0 and 6, and compared intakes with dietary reference values.

Results

The diet was nutritionally inadequate for a range of micronutrients. Seven of 10 patients responded. Mean [standard deviation (SD)] severity scores improved from week 0–6 [20.8 (9.39) and 10.1 (5.72); P = 0.009] and were maintained in five patients who completed the reintroduction [6.6 (3.13) and 7.2 (5.54); P = 0.713].

Conclusions

A low phenolic acid diet with micronutrient supplementation holds promise of a novel dietary treatment for OFG. Further work is required in larger studies to determine long-term outcomes.

Bilberry is a type of dark blue-skinned berry native to Europe. It is sometimes called whortleberry, huckleberry, or blaeberry. Today, the bilberry grows in countries outside of Europe, including certain regions of the United States.

At first glance, the bilberry looks similar to the blueberry. The two berries are closely related and share similar nutritional values, but they do have some distinct traits.

One of the most noticeable differences between the two berries is the color of the flesh when they’re in season. Where blueberries have a greenish color inside their dark blue skins, bilberries have a red or purple color. In addition to their differences in color, bilberries also have a more acidic flavor than blueberries.

These berries might be small, but they provide many amazing health benefits.

Health Benefits

Like other types of berries, bilberries have many health benefits. Bilberries contain several plant compounds that can help fight inflammation, improve heart health, prevent diabetes, reduce the risk of cancer, and more.

The health benefits of bilberries include:

Eye health . If left untreated, glaucoma can eventually lead to a gradual loss of eyesight. The anthocyanins in bilberries can help improve eye function for people with normal-tension glaucoma. Some studies suggest bilberries may help with eye fatigue, which can lead to eye strain, headaches, shoulder tension, and blurred or double vision.

Bilberry and bilberry extract can help lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. The berries may also help increase insulin secretion in people with metabolic syndrome.

Bilberries contain vitamin K, which can help prevent blood clots that could cause a heart attack or stroke. The anthocyanins in bilberries may also help reduce cholesterol and lower blood pressure. Managing your cholesterol levels and blood pressure can reduce your risk for atherosclerosis and other heart-related problems.

Bilberry is full of vitamin C, anthocyanins, and other antioxidants that help fight free radicals in your body. By protecting against free radicals and cell damage, bilberries may help reduce your risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Continued

The antioxidants in bilberries can help reduce inflammation in your body. This helps lower your risk of inflammatory diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and heart disease.

Bilberry contains phenolic acids, and research suggests phenolic acids may help reduce your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

Digestive health

Bilberry can help treat digestive issues. The antioxidants, tannins, and pectin in the berries can reduce inflammation in your digestive system. Reducing this inflammation helps relieve diarrhea, nausea, and indigestion.

Nutrients per Serving

Similar to many other types of berries, bilberries are packed with nutrients. In 1 cup (148 grams) of bilberries, you’ll find:

  • Calories: 85
  • Protein: 1 gram
  • Fat: Less than 1 gram
  • Carbohydrates: 21 grams
  • Fiber: 3 grams
  • Sugar: 15 grams

A cup of bilberries provides 24% of your daily recommended allowance of vitamin C. It also provides small amounts of vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6.

Bilberries are packed with many other nutrients, including:

  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin K
  • Magnesium
  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Iron
  • Phosphorous
  • Potassium
  • Folate

Bilberries are full of antioxidants, including anthocyanins. These flavonoid compounds help give the fruit its dark blue color. Bilberries also contain phenolic acids, which may help prevent cancer.

How to Prepare Bilberry

You can buy fresh, frozen, or dried bilberries in some health food stores. Unlike blueberries, bilberries are much less common in most grocery stores.

When buying fresh bilberries, look for smooth, tight skin. Avoid berries that look overripe or moldy. To store bilberries, place them in a glass jar and cover them with plastic wrap. Only wash them when you’re ready to use them. You can also store bilberries for longer periods in the freezer.

You can eat bilberries on their own or include them in any recipe that calls for berries. Some ways to add bilberry to your diet include:

  • Sprinkle bilberries on yogurt or oatmeal.
  • Add bilberries to granola.
  • Mix bilberries into pancake or muffin batter.
  • Bake a bilberry pie.
  • Drink bilberry juice or add them to a bilberry smoothie.
  • Make bilberry jam or jelly.
  • Brew them into bilberry tea.

Sources

Benzie, IFF. Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis, 2011.

Frontiers in Pharmacology: “Berry Phenolic Acids – Implications for Human Health.”

Journal of Medicinal Food: “Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Bilberry Anthocyanins Improve Visual Function in Patients with Normal Tension Glaucoma.”

The Journal of Nutrition, Health, and Aging: “Bilberry Extract Supplementation for Preventing Eye Fatigue in Video Display Workers.”

Journal of Nutritional Science: “A Single Supplement of a Standardized (Vaccinium Myrtillus L.) Extract (36% Wet Weight Anthocyanins) Modifies Glycaemic Response in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Controlled By Diet and Lifestyle.”

Biochemistry (Moscow): “Anti-Angiogenic, Antioxidant, and Anti-Carcinogenic Properties of Anthocyanin-Rich Berry Extract Formula.”

Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry: “Anthocyanin-Enriched Bilberry and Blackcurrant Extracts Modulate Amyloid Precursor Protein Processing and Alleviate Behavioral Abnormalities in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease.”

How to add phenolic acids to your diet

The term phenol refers to a large group of chemical compounds found in plants. These chemicals make up the active substances in many plants and are responsible for controlling the activity of a range of enzymes and cell receptors, thus protecting the plant from bacterial and fungal infections and UV radiation damage. Phenols, having such protective properties and high antioxidant profiles, have caught the attention of scientists and those in search of good health. On the other hand, if you have been advised to stay away from high-phenol foods, these are foods you should avoid.

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Fruit

The fruit group consists of a range of phenol-containing foods. To pick fruits containing the highest level of phenols, aim for the berry family. Other fruits to reach for are citrus varieties, apples, peaches, apricots, plums, pears, grapes and cherries. When selecting fruits based on phenol content, keep this tip in mind: the darker the fruit, the greater the phenol content. By eating the seeds and skins, you can achieve the highest amount of phenols plant foods provide.

Vegetables

The vegetable food group also contains an array of foods high in phenol content, with the highest content found in the yellow onion. Additionally, artichokes, potatoes, rhubarb, red cabbage, curly kale, leeks, cherry tomatoes, celery and broccoli all offer a good supply of phenols.

Grains

Stock the pantry shelves with the following grains, keeping in mind the descending phenol content order: buckwheat, rye, oats, barley, corn, wheat and rice, respectively. Common foods containing these grains include breads, oatmeal, tortillas, pastas and cereals.

Legumes

Fill grocery carts with a variety of peas and beans in the form of canned or dried beans or spreads, with soybeans having the greatest amount of phenols. Add beans and peas to soups, salads, dips and other dishes.

Spices

Spice things up in the kitchen by using parsley and capsicum pepper, with parsley containing the largest amount of phenols. Using such spices is a sure way to increase the phenol content of any food.

Beverages

You can sip on numerous beverages to boost phenol intake. Reach for cider, coffee, soy milk, regular milk, cocoa, red wine, black and green teas, and orange and grapefruit juices. For the highest phenol content, fill your cup with coffee and green tea. Any beverage made from other sources of phenols mentioned will make for a good beverage choice.

How to add phenolic acids to your diet

Winnie the Pooh might have been on to something. While honey is known as a natural way to sweeten foods, it may have benefits for your body, too, says registered dietitian Mira Ilic, MS, RDN, LD.

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How honey is made

Honey is a liquid sweetener that bees make. After they collect nectar from flowers, they take it back to the hive and regurgitate it. Then, the other bees chew it until it becomes honey. The bees deposit the honey into tiny, waxy storage units called honeycombs. They fan it with their wings to dry it out. This process makes it stickier.

“Honey gets its sweetness from its chemical makeup,” Ilic says. “It’s made up of two simple sugars called glucose and fructose, along with some minerals.”

Types of honey

The U.S. boasts more than 300 different types of honey. You can buy it:

  • Raw: Raw honey comes straight from the hive. “Raw honey is the least processed and probably has the most antioxidants,” Ilic says. Despite its raw status, it’s considered safe to eat except for children younger than 1, who should avoid all honey.
  • Pasteurized: Pasteurized honey has been processed to remove imperfections and improve its shelf life. “It can also be spiked with added corn syrup or other sweeteners,” Ilic notes. “Not all honey sold in the stores is the same even though it all starts naturally in the hive.”

Why is some honey light and others dark?

Whether honey is light or dark in color depends on which kind of plant the bees who made it took the nectar from. “For instance, dark buckwheat yields dark honey,” says Ilic. “But nutritionally, there’s evidence that darker honey has less water and more antioxidants than light-colored honey.”

Honey has so many different tastes you can enjoy compared to plain sugar, she adds. “It can be sweeter or more bitter, depending on the flower source.”

Light honey varieties

Light-colored honey tends to be mild in flavor. Varieties include:

  • Acacia honey: It has floral scents and sweetness but doesn’t change the taste of what you put it in, such as tea and oatmeal, Ilic says.
  • Clover honey: This honey is common in the U.S. “It has a floral, sweet taste and a bit of a sour aftertaste,” says Ilic. “It’s good for baking, sauces and dressings.”

Dark honey varieties

Dark honeys are known for their stronger flavors. Examples include:

  • Buckwheat honey: “This full-flavored honey can be used in marinades,” says Ilic.
  • Manuka honey: Manuka honey comes from the nectar and pollen of the Manuka bush in New Zealand. “Studies have shown it contains antioxidants, along with antibacterial and antifungal properties. It’s also expensive,” adds Ilic. It’s traditionally used topically to treat burns, cuts and sores.

Is crystallized honey bad?

Store honey in a cool location away from sunlight. But sometimes, even in the perfect spot, honey can crystallize and solidify. “Honey with a higher ratio of glucose versus fructose crystallizes sooner,” Ilic explains. “Glucose may also attach to the little particles of honeycomb and pollen in raw honey and is more likely to crystallize as a result.”

But crystallized honey is still safe to eat: Ilic recommends using it as a spread, like butter. You can also re-liquefy it by putting the container in a warm water bath.

Honey’s health benefits

Honey contains antioxidants, minerals, enzymes that have many potential health benefits. There’s also evidence that honey can:

  • Soothe coughs: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics both endorse honey as a natural cough remedy.
  • Treat wounds and burns: Pharmaceutical-grade manuka honey dressings have been used in clinical settings to treat burns and pressure ulcers.

“Many other claims have been made about the health benefits of honey – some based on very small studies, others overstated and based on mixed study results,” Ilic says. “Additional studies are needed.”

How to add honey to your diet

While honey has health qualities that other sugars only dream of, Ilic says it’s still an added sugar — and eating too much of it can wreak havoc on your health. The American Heart Association recommends:

  • Women: Consume no more than 6 teaspoons daily of added sugars (100 calories).
  • Men: Consume no more than 9 teaspoons daily of added sugars (150 calories).

Those limits include all sources of added sugar in your diet, so use honey in moderation to avoid exceeding the limits, says Ilic. “Try sweetening plain yogurt with a light drizzle of honey and add your own fruit, instead of eating flavored yogurt with too much added sugar.” You could also use honey in sauces and marinades or as a skin mask.

If you want to use honey medicinally, Ilic says talk with your health care professional first.

How to choose honey

Ilic’s first tip? The best honey doesn’t come in a cute little plastic teddy bear. That kind of honey is processed and less beneficial than its counterparts.

“The clearer the honey, the more processed it is. Raw honey seems to be the better choice,” she says.” It’s likely to have some pollen and more enzymes because it’s not treated with heat. Pollen may have beneficial properties. But pollen does make honey look foggier.”

If you’re buying honey from a local source, she also recommends asking:

  • Where did the honey come from?
  • Did the seller produce it?
  • What can they tell you about it?

Ilic adds that an “organic” label doesn’t automatically mean the honey is healthier or better quality. “Bees sometimes fly a few miles past their pesticide- and herbicide-free property to ones with flowers that aren’t. And even organic honey may be ultra-pasteurized.”

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Correspondence Feng Zhou, China Agricultural University, P.O. Box 294, No. 17 Tsinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, People’s Republic of China. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, People’s Republic of China

National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100050, People’s Republic of China

Academy of State Administration of Grain, Beijing 100037, People’s Republic of China

Institute of Apicultural Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100093, People’s Republic of China

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, People’s Republic of China

Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, People’s Republic of China

Correspondence Feng Zhou, China Agricultural University, P.O. Box 294, No. 17 Tsinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083, People’s Republic of China. Email: [email protected] Search for more papers by this author

Funding information: National Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 31571831

Abstract

Phenolic acids are naturally occurring compounds with meritorious physiological activities. The purpose of this study was to compare the ameliorative effects of six common phenolic acids on dietinduced metabolic syndrome (MS) in rats. SD rats were fed with highfat and highfructose diet supplemented with equimolar concentration of individual phenolic acids for 13 weeks. Results showed that different phenolic acids ameliorated MS through different ways. Compared with other phenolic acids, caffeic acid exerted more comprehensive effect in alleviating MS, with significant effects in attenuating hyperlipidemia, elevating glucose tolerance, improving antioxidant status, and normalizing hepatic functions. Ellagic acid exhibited good performance in hypolipidemia, anti-inflammation, and reducing visceral fat. Gallic acid and ρ-coumaric acid showed marked effects in regulating liver steatosis, while chlorogenic acid exhibited potential hepatic protective and anti-inflammatory abilities. These results will benefit the application of these phenolic acids in the development of functional food for MS population.

Practical applications

The high morbidity of metabolic syndrome (MS) has driven people to seek for natural and safe compounds to maintain optimal health. Different phenolic acids were shown to ameliorate MS through different ways, which provides experimental basis for developing combinations or formulas of phenolic acids with more comprehensive effects. Conversely, caffeic acid showed relatively better effects in attenuating features of metabolic disorders, and was suggested for the future development of functional foods for the population with MS.

How to add phenolic acids to your diet

Phenols and salicylates are chemical compounds found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, and some medications. These compounds are excellent antioxidants, so we typically think of them as very healthy. However, high levels of phenols and salicylates in certain foods seem to negatively affect some children with autism and individuals with sensitive digestive and immune systems.

In this article, we will discuss phenols and salicylates, specifically:

  • What they are
  • Why some children are sensitive to them
  • Symptoms and testing
  • Treatment options for those who have trouble processing foods high in phenols and salicylates (including a FREE PDF Download with information about ways to support phenol metabolism)

What Are Phenols and Salicylates?

The term phenol refers to a large group of chemical compounds found in plants. Salicylates are a specific type of phenol. These beneficial compounds act as a preservative, protecting plants from bacterial/fungal infections, insects, and UV radiation damage.

Natural phenols are not only beneficial to plants but humans too. For example, phenols in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds are excellent sources of antioxidants, which protect us from heart disease, promote healthy digestion, improve brain function, and reduce inflammation.

Also, processed and packaged foods contain phenols. However, many of these are synthetically produced phenols that manufacturers add to artificially flavor, color, and lengthen shelf life. Similarly, some medications, toothpaste, and lotion contain synthetically produced salicylates.

Why Are Kids Sensitive to Phenols and Salicylates?

Even though phenols and salicylates are beneficial for our bodies, some people have adverse reactions to them. For example, a child with a phenol sulfurtransferase (PST) deficiency will have trouble processing foods high in phenols. PST is an enzyme that breaks down phenols, allowing the body to use what it needs and excrete what it doesn’t need. Accordingly, people with a PST deficiency have trouble detoxifying and clearing away phenols and salicylates, causing them to accumulate. As a result of this accumulation, symptoms of phenol sensitivities develop.

Symptoms and Testing

Physical and Behavioral Symptoms

Symptoms of a phenol/salicylate sensitivity vary and mimic other conditions, making it difficult to diagnose. A person with a phenol/salicylate sensitivity may experience some of the following adverse side effects:

  • Physical:
    • Headaches
    • Hives, eczema, or changes in skin color
      • Specifically, red ears and/or cheeks
      • Runny and/or stuffy nose
      • Sinus infection
      • Nasal and sinus polyps
      • Asthma
      • Abdominal pain
      • Colitis
      • Diarrhea
      • Inflammation
      • Behavior:
        • Hyperactivity
        • Mood swings, irritability, or aggression
        • Stimming
        • Laughing at inappropriate times
        • Night waking

        Testing

        There is no known lab test for phenol and salicylate sensitivity. So, if your child’s doctor suspects a phenol/salicylate sensitivity is causing issues, they may place them on a food elimination diet with provocations to see if symptoms improve or worsen.

        Additionally, your doctor may request a urine sample. This is because sometimes you will see high amounts of taurine in the urine if there is a problem converting sulfite (which is toxic) to sulfate, possibly indicating an issue with phenols.

        Treatment Options for Phenol and Salicylate Sensitivities

        Because almost all foods contain phenols, it is nearly impossible to avoid them altogether. Besides that, foods that contain phenols also contain essential vitamins and nutrients that kids need to grow up healthy and strong.

        Because of this, treatment typically involves making sure the body isn’t overwhelmed by excess phenols and salicylates. This is achieved by decreasing the number of phenols the body has to process and supporting phenol metabolism.

        For example, you can:

        • Eliminate foods with artificial preservatives, dyes, and additives.
          • Specifically, foods that contain natural or artificial flavorings, preservatives (BHA, BHT, and TBHQ), and dyes (red, orange, and green are the worst offenders).
          • You can see evidence of this in studies conducted by Dr. Ben Feingold, Dr. Stephen Lockey, and others, which demonstrate that food dyes and food additives were responsible for hyperactivity in many of the children they had seen in their practices.

          Download TACA’s FREE Tip Sheet for more information about:

          • High phenol foods and lower phenol foods to replace them with.
          • Supplements that help the body process phenols.

          Also, visit the Feingold and FAILSAFE websites. Because both of these diets eliminate phenols and salicylates, they have great resources.

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, foods and food additives that contain phenols/salicylates are problematic for a subset of children and people with autism. These otherwise healthy foods can cause a range of symptoms from mild to severe. Being aware of the problem and working with your doctor to find ways to address the underlying issue can make your child more comfortable and happier.

          Additional Resources:

          All content in this article is for informational purposes only, including links to products and/or websites mentioned. To clarify, TACA does not receive any compensation or commission for providing them.

          Furthermore, the information on this page is not a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis, or treatment. For this reason, always seek the advice of your physician, therapist, or other qualified health provider with any questions or concerns you may have.

          Go to

          Phenolic acids are naturally-occurring constituents of plant-derived foods and beverages and are characterised by a phenol ring in their structure. The phenolic compounds we are going to focus on in this study are the Chlorogenic acids (CGAs), a family of esters conjugates formed between a Hydroxycinnamic acid and quinic acid (1) and that show a strong antioxidant activity (2).

          HCAs represent about 50% of the total polyphenolic coumpounds intake in a typical UK diet (3) and for people who drink it, coffee is a/the major dietary source of/for HCAs (4). A few studies suggest protective effects for cardiovascular diseases (5), neurodegenerative diseases, type 2 diabetis and liver and kidneys cancer risk. However, many data in the field are obtained from in vitro and/or in animal, and it is difficult and dangerous to extrapolate between these and risk in humans of development or progression of particular health conditions, more human studies are therefore needed.

          We aim to compare people that metabolise the best CGAs from coffee to those that metabolise them the least well. This will be achieved by measuring the metabolites in urine. The effect of CGAs on the human body does not only depend on the amount ingested, but also on the quality of the metabolism, we therefore also want to determine which mechanisms are responsible for inter-individual variations in order to identify any link with health biomarkers, these including non-cellular inflammation and cardiovascular risk indicators.

          For this cohort study funded by the University of Leeds, approximately 60 healthy volunteers will be recruited at the School of Food Science & Nutrition. If they meet the selection criteria, participants will be asked to undergo a 36-hour wash-out period. During those 36 hours, participants won’t be allowed to drink coffee, they will be asked to follow a diet low in phenolic acids and keep a record of their meals. On the first day of the study, a single dose of coffee rich in antioxidants will be given to the participant and urine will be collected from that time until 36 hours after coffee consumption. Participants will be followed again after 5 to 6 weeks.

          Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase
          Bioavailability Cardiovascular Health Status Other: Coffee Not Applicable

          Go to

          Layout table for study information

          Study Type : Interventional (Clinical Trial)
          Actual Enrollment : 62 participants
          Allocation: N/A
          Intervention Model: Single Group Assignment
          Masking: None (Open Label)
          Primary Purpose: Basic Science
          Official Title: Bioavailability of Coffee Phenolic Acids and Cardiovascular Health in Healthy Humans.
          Actual Study Start Date : September 1, 2012
          Actual Primary Completion Date : November 2013
          Actual Study Completion Date : June 27, 2018

          Go to

          How to add phenolic acids to your diet Collagen is a protein produced by the skin or other body parts that provides the elasticity and smoothness of the skin, contributing to keeping your skin toned and preventing sagging. With age, the natural production of collagen begins to slow which results in the wrinkles and lines forming around mouth and eyes as well as on the face and neck. Although this is a natural part of the aging process, there are several ways you can try to slow this process and keep your skin healthy.

          8 Ways to Produce Collagen Naturally

          Many commercially available products promise the magic to reduce wrinkles and prevent sagging. Be aware that these products usually do not deliver on these promises. Instead, you should know about those foods that you can add to your diet to produce collagen naturally and slow the aging process of the skin.

          1. Vitamins

          Increase your intake of Vitamin C, which is the key in the production of collagen. Guavas, oranges, bell peppers, strawberries, broccoli, cauliflower, tomatoes and cabbage are all great sources of vitamin C. Try to eat these foods raw since heat tends to destroy Vitamin C. Two other vitamins that are critical to collagen production are vitamins B and E. To get your daily requirements of these vitamins, eat plenty of the green leafy vegetables, broccoli, cauliflower, bean, wheat germ, seeds and nuts. Try fortified breads and cereals to get enough Vitamin B complex and vitamin E.

          2. Phytoestrogen

          As women age, the natural production of estrogen decreases. Estrogen is critical for maintenance of healthy collagen. Many plant foods contain phytoestrogens that replace the effects of the lost estrogen. By replacing the natural estrogen with these phytoestrogens, the natural loss of collagen may be slowed. Foods high in phytoestrogen are soy beans and products made from them, bran, peas, pinto beans, flaxseeds, alfalfa and sprouts.

          3. Gelatin

          Gelatin is a protein-based product that is the component in jello and jellies that makes them gel. Gelatin is also the substance that forms on the top of cooked meat after it is cooled. It is simply the broken down collagen in the gristle of the meat. Adding gelatin to your diet will help your body rebuild and restore the collagen in your body.

          4. Catechin

          Green tea and white tea are always recommended as anti-aging drinks because of the compounds found in them. White tea is great for preventing breakdown of collagen by enzymes and rich in phenolic acid which is known for protecting the tissue. Green tea, of course, has a large amount of catechin, which are antioxidants that work to neutralize the free radicals that can damage and age your skin.

          5. Lutein

          Lutein is another powerful antioxidant that fights free radicals that tend to lead to decreased collagen. Taking the recommended daily intake of this antioxidant (about 10 milligrams) will help increase the elasticity of your skin by increasing collagen production. Green leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach are particularly high in lutein.

          6. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

          The Omega-3 fatty acids are well-known for their ability to keep your skin soft and elastic. The best sources of these fatty acids are in fish (mackerel, tuna, salmon, cod) and flax seed oil. The fish should be eaten 2-3 times each week; if you decide to use flax seed oil, take 1 tablespoon of the oil twice each day.

          7. Organic Grass-Fed Whey

          Whey is a protein based product that has been shown to be very effective in increasing production of collagen in your body. Be sure to use the organic whey since these products do not contain the fillers or other chemicals that may be present in some commercially available whey products.

          8. L-Arginine

          L-Arginine is an amino acid that is important in the formation of proteins and works to produce collagen in the skin. More surprisingly, this amino acid has the magic to help repair wounds and other skin damage. Having a considered amount of foods high in L-Arginine will definitely helpful. According to researches, sesame, seeds, lentils, whole grains, seafood, spinach and spirulina are all ideal sources of L-Arginine.

          4 Tips to Prevent Collagen Loss

          There are several lifestyle changes that you should consider to help slow down the loss of collagen. Using some of these tips can help maintain your skin elasticity as you age.

          1. Quit Smoking

          If you do not smoke, do not start. If you do smoke, stop now! Smoking is a lifestyle choice that will affect your skin as much or more than any other choice. If you have tried to stop smoking and just cannot do it, speak to your healthcare provider to get one of the aids that will help you stop.

          2. Drink Less

          If you drink alcohol, be sure to do so in moderation. Excessive alcohol consumption has similar effects on your collagen production as smoking. In addition, alcohol can have negative effects on many other body systems.

          3. Exercise Regularly

          Exercise! Moderate exercise several times a week will help collagen production, will keep you from gaining too much weight, and will make you feel better. If you have health problems or if exercise is new to you, be sure to consult your healthcare provider before starting an exercise program.

          4. Put on Sunscreen

          Sunlight is critical to your body’s production and utilization of vitamin D; however, prolonged exposure to the harmful ultraviolet rays will destroy the collagen in your skin and can lead to skin cancer. Be sure to use sunscreen every day and reapply it every few hours. If you have fair skin, you may need to use very high SPF value lotions, but even if you have dark skin, the sun can damage it.